Clinical Biomechanics: The Upper Extremity
We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.
This is Chapter 10 from RC’s best-selling book:
Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins
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CHAPTER 10: THE UPPER EXTREMITY This chapter considers forces acting within and upon the shoulder girdle, arm, forearm, and hand, and their related clinical problems, with emphasis on the related musculoskeletal disorders. Therapy can be directed efficiently when the mechanisms of injury are appreciated and correction is applied in harmony with proven biomechanical principles.
The Shoulder Girdle and Arm
The structure of the upper extremity is composed of the shoulder girdle and the upper limb. The shoulder girdle consists of the scapula and clavicle, and the upper limb is composed of the arm, forearm, wrist, hand, and fingers. However, a kinematic chain extends from the cervical and upper thoracic spine to the fingertips. Only when certain multiple segments are completely fixed can these parts possibly function independently in mechanical roles. (more…)