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Daily Archives: June 29, 2010

Clinical Biomechanics: The Upper Extremity

By |June 29, 2010|Diagnosis, Education|

Clinical Biomechanics: The Upper Extremity

The Chiro.Org Blog

We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 10 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Clinical Biomechanics:
Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


This chapter considers forces acting within and upon the shoulder girdle, arm, forearm, and hand, and their related clinical problems, with emphasis on the related musculoskeletal disorders. Therapy can be directed efficiently when the mechanisms of injury are appreciated and correction is applied in harmony with proven biomechanical principles.

The Shoulder Girdle and Arm

The structure of the upper extremity is composed of the shoulder girdle and the upper limb. The shoulder girdle consists of the scapula and clavicle, and the upper limb is composed of the arm, forearm, wrist, hand, and fingers. However, a kinematic chain extends from the cervical and upper thoracic spine to the fingertips. Only when certain multiple segments are completely fixed can these parts possibly function independently in mechanical roles. (more…)