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Monthly Archives: July 2010

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Clinical Biomechanics: Basic Factors of Biodynamics and Joint Stability

By |July 30, 2010|Diagnosis, Education|

Clinical Biomechanics: Basic Factors of Biodynamics and Joint Stability

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

The following is Chapter 3 from RC’s best-selling:

“Clinical Biomechanics:
Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions”


Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 3:   Basic Factors of Biodynamics and Joint Stability

The techniques used for analyzing static positions of the body are only approximate inasmuch as forces accompanying movement incorporate such dynamic factors as acceleration, momentum, friction, the changing positions of rotational axes, and the resistance and support offered by tissues other than muscles. This chapter discusses the basic concepts and terms of biodynamics, biomechanical stress, and the biomechanical aspects of articular cartilage pertinent to the clinical setting.

Structural Motion

The study of dynamics is concerned with loads and the motions of bodies (kinematics) and the action of forces in producing or changing their motion (kinetics). Kinematics lets us describe the characteristics of motion position, acceleration, and velocity such as in gait or scoliotic displacements. Here we are concerned with the position of the center of mass of the body and its segments, the segmental range of motion, and the velocity and direction of their movements. In kinetics, we become concerned with the forces that cause or restrict motion such as muscle contraction, gravity, and friction. A complete biomechanical analysis of human motion or motion of a part would include both kinematic and kinetic data.

Motion can be defined as an object’s relative change of place or position in space within a time frame and with respect to some other object in space. Thus, motion may be determined and illustrated by knowing and showing its position before and after an interval of time. While linear motion is readily demonstrated in the body as a whole as it moves in a straight line, most joint motions are combinations of translatory and angular movements that are more often than not diagonal rather than parallel to the cardinal planes. In addition to muscle force, joint motion is governed by factors of movement freedom, axes of movement, and range of motion. (more…)

Pingbacks, Tweets, and Referrals, Oh My!

By |July 29, 2010|Announcement|

Pingbacks, Tweets, and Referrals, Oh My!

The Chiro.Org Blog


We are asking that our readers please use the actual address (or URL) of our posts (for example, http://chiro.org/wordpress/?p=3413 ) when you make a Tweet, or otherwise mention one of our articles in any form of social media.

Search engines do not count shortened URLs as real traffic to our site, because their software does not track them to the final destinations. All you do is raise the Stats for Tiny or Bit. (more…)

Clinical Biomechanics: The Cervical Spine

By |July 28, 2010|Cervical Spine, Diagnosis, Education|

Clinical Biomechanics: The Cervical Spine

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 7 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Clinical Biomechanics:
Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions”


Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 7:   CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS OF THE CERVICAL SPINE

This chapter considers those factors that are of biomechanical and related clinical interest imperative to the satisfactory evaluation of common or not infrequent cervical syndromes. The discussion assumes that the physician is skilled in taking a thorough clinical history and performing the basic physical, orthopedic, neurologic, and roentgenographic examination procedures. The kinesiology and kinematics of the neck, the effects and mechanisms of cervical trauma, and a number of clinical problems are discussed that are pertinent to the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal cervical disorders.

General Aspects of Cervical Trauma

Blows to the head or neck may result in unconsciousness, but most blows do not. Rather, the effect is a “subconcussive” or “punch drunk” effect for a few moments. This state may be the effect of a severe blow to the head or the cumulative effects of many blows. It is assumed that the reader is well acquainted with the proper emergency procedures involved in head and neck trauma.

The anterior and lateral aspects of the neck contain a wide variety of vital structures that have no bony protection. Partial protection is provided by the cervical muscles, the mandible, and the shoulder girdle. After spinal injury, a careful neurologic evaluation must be conducted. Note any signs of impaired consciousness, inequality of pupils, or nystagmus. Do outstretched arms drift unilaterally when the eyes are closed? Standard coordination tests such as finger-to-nose, heel-to-toe, heel-to-knee, and for Romberg’s sign should be conducted, along with superficial and tendon reflex tests. For reference, the segmental functions of the cervical nerves are listed in Table 7.3.

Cervical spine injuries can be classified as being:

(1) mild (eg, contusions, strains);

(2) moderate (eg, subluxations, sprains, occult fractures, nerve contusions, neurapraxias);

(3) severe (eg, axonotmesis, dislocation, stable fracture without neurologic deficit); and

(4) dangerous (eg, unstable fracturedislocation, spinal cord or nerve root injury).

Soft-Tissue Injuries of the Posterolateral Neck

     CERVICAL CONTUSIONS

Contusions in the neck are similar to those of other areas. They often occur in the cervical muscles or spinous processes. Painful bruising and tender swelling will be found without difficulty, especially if the neck is flexed. They present little biomechanic significance unless severe scarring occurs.

     DIRECT NERVE TRAUMA

Nerve trauma occurs from contusion, crushing, or laceration.

Neurapraxia.   Recovery of nerve contusion usually occurs within 6 weeks. Nerve contusion may be the result of either a single blow or through persistent compression. Fractures and blunt trauma are often associated with nerve contusion and crush. Peripheral nerve contusions exhibit early symptoms when produced by falls or blows. Late symptoms arise from pressure by callus, scars, or supports. Mild cases produce pain, tingling, and numbness, with some degree of paresthesia. Moderate cases manifest these same symptoms with some degree of motor and/or sensory paralysis and atrophy.

Axonotmesis.   After nerve crush, recovery rate is about an inch per month between the site of trauma and the next innervated muscle. If innervation is delayed from this schedule or if the distance is more than a few inches, surgical exploration should be considered.

Neurotmesis.   Laceration from sharp or penetrating wounds is less frequently seen than tears from a fractured bone’s fragments. Surgery is usually required. Stretching injury typically features several sites of laceration along the nerve and is usually limited to the brachial plexus.

Review the complete Chapter (including sketches and Tables)
at the
ACAPress website

Chiropractor helps PGA players work through their aches and pains

By |July 28, 2010|Sports|

Source Observer-Dispatch
by FRAN PERRITANO

Tom LaFountain hails from a very athletic family, so it would be natural that his career is somehow connected to sports. LaFountain is a chiropractic orthopedist who practices in Utica, but he also has been a member of the PGA sports medicine team since 1997. He has worked with some famous golfers including Phil Mickelson, Tiger Woods, Jim Furyk, Vijay Singh, Davis Love, Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Palmer.

Question: You’ve been involved as a chiropractor on the PGA Tour since 1997. How did that come about?

Answer: I had worked for seven years for the U.S. Speedskating Team and had done the Winter Olympic Games in Albertville, France, in 1992 and Lillihammar, Norway, in 1994. I became friends with a physical therapist who worked on the U.S. Luge team. He left to work with the PGA Tour after the 1992 Olympics. In 1997, he called me and said that they needed someone to work on the PGA Tour that had a specialty in spinal problems, and that he thought that I would be a good fit. I did a trial tournament at the Riviera Country Club in Los Angeles, signed on and have been there since. (more…)

Applied Physiotherapy: Rehabilitation Methodology

By |July 27, 2010|Diagnosis, Education, Rehabilitation|

Applied Physiotherapy: Rehabilitation Methodology

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 13 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Applied Physiotherapy in Chiropractic”

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 13:   Rehabilitation Methodology

The topics of this chapter have been adapted from Volume 1, Chiropractic Rehabilitation, by K. D. Christensen, DC, © 1990, and used here with permission.


     INTRODUCTION


Strengthening exercises for the muscular system play an essential role in the chiropractic management of various neuromusculoskeletal disorders. Knowledge of various training methods and exercise techniques are thus among the most important requirements for effective treatment. [1] Properly conducted individual exercise programs help prevent many injuries and serve to shorten the recovery period necessary to restore the patient back to health. [2] Exercise programs can be designed to increase strength, aid weight loss, increase cardiorespiratory efficiency, or simply improve overall musculoskeletal performance.

All exercise programs should have specific goals in mind. The cornerstone of exercise is Davis’ Law, or the (SAID) principle that states that the body makes specific adaptation to imposed demands. [3] The more specific the exercise, the more specific the adaptation. Exercise, therefore, should be as specific as possible to the individual’s goals and needs. (more…)

Instrument Adjusting: Chiropractic Research

By |July 22, 2010|Research|

Instrument Adjusting: Chiropractic Research

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic Economics

An overview of the study of instrument adjusting

By Arlan W. Fuhr, DC


Nearly 40 years ago, Drs. Scott Haldeman and Jay Triano, along with a small collection of college presidents, attended the National Institute for Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) Conference, and, at that time, there were no clinical trials on chiropractic or manipulation.

Those esteemed visionaries lamented how unscientific the chiropractic profession appeared to the greater scientific community, and dedicated themselves to improving the availability of research to provide evidence of chiropractic’s efficacy.

Much progress has been made since that fateful conference in 1974. Today, a commitment to research endures, as doctors have recognized how necessary research is to the ongoing acceptance of chiropractic into traditional medicine.

You will also enjoy reviewing our
Instrument Adjusting Research Page

(more…)