Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion:
An Invisible and Confusing Condition
SOURCE: ACA News ~ June 2015 ~ FULL TEXT
By James J. Lehman, DC, FACO
Traumatic brain injuries are perplexing and problematic — and they affect millions of Americans. It has been estimated that up to 3.8 million Americans incur mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) or concussions in sports-related activities and approximately 50 percent of the injured do not report the injury to a health care professional.  I suspect that millions of MTBI are not reported to health care providers as a result of sporting activities, motor vehicle accidents, work-related injuries and military operations. Another report claims that MTBI affects more than 1.125 million Americans.
Traumatic brain injury is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic because the problems that result from it (e.g., impaired memory) often are not visible. Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) accounts for at least 75 percent of all traumatic brain injuries in the United States.
According to existing data, more than 1.5 million people experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in the United States. These injuries may cause long-term or permanent impairments and disabilities. Many people with MTBI have difficulty returning to routine, daily activities and may be unable to return to work for many weeks or months. In addition to the human toll of these injuries, MTBI costs the nation nearly $17 billion each year. 
Some of the current definitions, position statements and evidence-based guidelines regarding concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are offered for your perusal and consideration. Sources discussing treatment, prevention and living with traumatic brain injuries are provided for those interested in more detail, continuing education credits and certification. The goal of this article is to make more visible your patients with obscure MTBI symptoms. I hope that this article will reduce confusion regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with MTBI and concussions.
Bloodless Concussion: The Misunderstood Injury
Some 11 years ago, an excellent review, Bloodless Concussion: The Misunderstood Injury, pointed out that approximately two-thirds of all chiropractic physicians practicing in the United States are licensed to diagnose and treat patients as portal-ofentry health care providers. Consequently, they can assume a major role in evaluating, diagnosing and treating concussions, particularly head injuries that affect the spine and related extremities. The review by David Martinez, DC, focused on concussion and MTBI primarily related to sports injury and chiropractic medicine. He mentioned that it is difficult to diagnose concussion and oftentimes perceived as unimportant because no blood or other obvious clinical signs are visible. 
Brain Injuries and Consciousness