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Frank M. Painter

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About Frank M. Painter

I was introduced to Chiro.Org in early 1996, where my friend Joe Garolis helped me learn HTML, the "mark-up language" for websites. We have been fortunate that journals like JMPT have given us permission to reproduce some early important articles in Full-Text format. Maintaining the Org website has been, and remains, my favorite hobby.

Evidence Based Chiropractic Care For Lower Back Pain

By |December 3, 2018|Chiropractic Research|

Evidence Based Chiropractic Care For Lower Back Pain

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Texas Chiropractic Association 2018


Our thanks to the TCA, Andrea Howard and Chris Dalrymple, D.C., F.I.C.C. for giving us permission to display their PowerPoint in an interactive fashion on Chiro.Org.

Just click on the screen to view all 24 slides.

Click on the underlined citations to see the studies.


You can even click for FULL SCREEN viewing!



Most of the citations are interactive, and link to the materials on our website,

We hope you will enjoy these slides as much as we do.

Special thanks to Michael Beattie, D.C. for rendering the PPT as a Google Doc that works!

Comparison of Treatment Outcomes in Nonspecific Low-Back Pain Patients With and Without Modic Changes Who Receive Chiropractic Treatment

By |December 1, 2018|Disc Derangement, Modic Changes|

Comparison of Treatment Outcomes in Nonspecific Low-Back Pain Patients With and Without Modic Changes Who Receive Chiropractic Treatment

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2018 (Sep); 41 (7): 561–570

Michèle Annen, MChiroMed, Cynthia Peterson, DC, MMedEd, B. Kim Humphreys, DC, PhD

Chiropractic Medicine Department,
Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich,
Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist,
Zürich, Switzerland.


OBJECTIVE:   The aim of this study was to determine if there was a difference in outcomes in patients with nonspecific low back pain, both with and without Modic changes (MCs), who received chiropractic care.

METHODS:   This prospective outcomes study included 112 patients with low back pain without disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with spinal manipulative therapy. At baseline, the numerical rating scale (NRS) and Bournemouth Questionnaire (BQ) for disability were collected. The NRS, BQ, and Patient’s Global Impression of Change (primary outcome) were collected at the follow-up time points of 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months to assess overall improvement. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for the presence of MCs and, if present, classified as Modic I or II. The χ2 test was used to compare the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant “improvement” between patients with and without MCs and between Modic I and Modic II patients. The unpaired Student t test was used to compare NRS and BQ at baseline and change scores at all follow-up time points.

RESULTS:   For the primary outcome measure, the proportion of patients reporting relevant “improvement” (Patient’s Global Impression of Change), and for the secondary outcome measures (NRS and BQ change scores), there were no significant differences between Modic positive and Modic negative patients or between Modic I and Modic II patients.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Low Back Pain and Chiropractic Page
and the:

Disc Herniation and Chiropractic Page

(more…)

The Association Between Psychological and Social Factors and Spinal Pain in Adolescents

By |November 29, 2018|Pediatrics, Spinal Pain|

The Association Between Psychological and Social Factors and Spinal Pain in Adolescents

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Eur J Pediatr. 2018 (Nov 21) [Epub]

Sarah Batley & Ellen Aartun & Eleanor Boyle & Jan Hartvigsen & Paula J. Stern & Lise Hestbæk

Graduate Studies,
Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College,
6100 Leslie Street,
Toronto, M2H 3J1, Canada.


Spinal pain, back pain, and/or neck pain begins early in life and is strongly associated with spinal pain in adulthood. Understanding the relationship between psychological and social factors and adolescent spinal pain may be important in both the prevention and treatment of spinal pain in this age group. We aimed to determine if psychological and social factors were associated with spinal pain in a cross-sectional study of a school-based cohort of 1279 Danish adolescents aged 11–13, who were categorized into “any” and “substantial” spinal pain.

“Substantial spinal pain” was defined as a lifetime frequency of “sometimes” or “often” and a pain intensity of at least two on the revised Faces Pain Scale. Logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, were conducted for single and all variables together. Eighty-six percent of participants reported “any spinal pain” and 28% reported “substantial spinal pain”. Frequency of psychological and social factors was significantly higher in those with spinal pain compared to those without. As the frequency of psychological and social factors increased, the odds of both “any spinal pain” and “substantial spinal pain” also increased.

There are more articles like this @ our:

The Chiropractic Pediatrics Section
and the:

The Biopsychosocial Model Page

(more…)

Our Blog is Just a Tool. Learn How To Use It Now.

By |November 29, 2018|Announcement|

Our Blog is Just a Tool.
Learn How To Use It Now.

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   A Chiro.Org Editorrial


Every Blog post is an announcement of new material that was just added to one of our many Sections.

I have been compiling (and archiving) peer-reviewed articles since early 1996, and to date we have thousands of Abstracts, and many hundreds of Full-Text articles on a wide variety of subjects.

When enough material, relating to a particular topic was collected, it was gathered into a new Topical Page in one of our many Sections.

Each Topical page is located in the Section most associated with that topic.
Thus, our Attention Deficit Page is located (is a part of) our Pediatrics Section You get the idea.

Almost ALL of our Sections contain some, or many Topical collections. The LINKS Section is the most extreme example, because it contains 83 different topical pages.

All of the following are “active” Sections that are constantly adding new (and important) materials:

Acupuncture Section
Alternative Healing Abstracts
Case Studies
Chiropractic Assistants Section
Chiropractic Research Section
Documentation Section
The LINKS
Medicare Information
Nutrition Section
Pediatrics Section
Radiology Section
Stroke and Chiropractic Page
“What is the Chiropractic Subluxation

These other valuable Sections are “archival” in nature, and contain
valuable tools for you to use freely:

Chiropractic History Section
Free Images Page
New DC’s Page
Office Forms Page
R.C. Schafer’s Rehab Monographs
Search Section


How Blog Posts Work

The following is a Graphic “screen grab” of a Blog Post from our Home Page. (more…)

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Migraine and Tension-type Headache, 1990-2016

By |November 26, 2018|Migraine|

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Migraine and Tension-type Headache, 1990-2016: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Lancet Neurol. 2018 (Nov); 17 (11): 954–976

GBD 2016 Headache Collaborators

Prof Lars Jacob Stovner,
Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim N-7491, Norway


BACKGROUND:   Through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) studies, headache has emerged as a major global public health concern. We aimed to use data from the GBD 2016 study to provide new estimates for prevalence and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for migraine and tension-type headache and to present the methods and results in an accessible way for clinicians and researchers of headache disorders.

METHODS:   Data were derived from population-based cross-sectional surveys on migraine and tension-type headache. Prevalence for each sex and 5–year age group interval (ie, age 5 years to ≥95 years) at different time points from 1990 and 2016 in all countries and GBD regions were estimated using a Bayesian meta-regression model. Disease burden measured in YLDs was calculated from prevalence and average time spent with headache multiplied by disability weights (a measure of the relative severity of the disabling consequence of a disease). The burden stemming from medication overuse headache, which was included in earlier iterations of GBD as a separate cause, was subsumed as a sequela of either migraine or tension-type headache. Because no deaths were assigned to headaches as the underlying cause, YLDs equate to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility.

FINDINGS:   Almost three billion individuals were estimated to have a migraine or tension-type headache in 2016: 1·89 billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·71–2·10) with tension-type headache and 1·04 billion (95% UI 1·00–1·09) with migraine. However, because migraine had a much higher disability weight than tension-type headache, migraine caused 45·1 million (95% UI 29·0–62·8) and tension-type headache only 7·2 million (95% UI 4·6–10·5) years lived with disability (YLDs) globally in 2016. The headaches were most burdensome in women between ages 15 and 49 years, with migraine causing 20·3 million (95% UI 12·9–28·5) and tension-type headache 2·9 million (95% UI 1·8–4·2) YLDs in 2016, which was 11·2% of all YLDs in this age group and sex. Age-standardised DALYs for each headache type showed a small increase as SDI increased.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Global Burden of Disease Page

(more…)

The Global Burden of Neck Pain

By |November 22, 2018|Neck Pain|

The Global Burden of Neck Pain: Estimates From the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 (Jul); 73 (7): 1309–1315

Damian Hoy, Lyn March, Anthony Woolf, Fiona Blyth, Peter Brooks, Emma Smith, Theo Vos, Jan Barendregt, Jed Blore, Chris Murray, Roy Burstein, Rachelle Buchbinder

University of Queensland,
Herston, Queensland, Australia.


OBJECTIVE:   To estimate the global burden of neck pain.

METHODS:   Neck pain was defined as pain in the neck with or without pain referred into one or both upper limbs that lasts for at least 1 day. Systematic reviews were performed of the prevalence, incidence, remission, duration and mortality risk of neck pain. Four levels of severity were identified for neck pain with and without arm pain, each with their own disability weights. A Bayesian meta-regression method was used to pool prevalence and derive missing age/sex/region/year values. The disability weights were applied to prevalence values to derive the overall disability of neck pain expressed as years lived with disability (YLDs). YLDs have the same value as disability-adjusted life years as there is no evidence of mortality associated with neck pain.

RESULTS:   The global point prevalence of neck pain was 4.9% (95% CI 4.6 to 5.3). Disability-adjusted life years increased from 23.9 million (95% CI 16.5 to 33.1) in 1990 to 33.6 million (95% CI 23.5 to 46.5) in 2010. Out of all 291 conditions studied in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study, neck pain ranked 4th highest in terms of disability as measured by YLDs, and 21st in terms of overall burden.

There are more articles like this @ our new:

Global Burden of Disease Page

(more…)