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Tissue Loading Created During Spinal Manipulation in Comparison to Loading Created by Passive Spinal Movements

By |October 24, 2017|Adverse Events, Disc Derangement|

Tissue Loading Created During Spinal Manipulation in Comparison to Loading Created by Passive Spinal Movements

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SOURCE:   Sci Rep. 2016 (Dec 1);   6:   38107

Martha Funabashi, Gregory N. Kawchuk, Albert H. Vette,
Peter Goldsmith, and Narasimha Prasad

Department of Physical Therapy,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB, Canada


Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) creates health benefits for some while for others, no benefit or even adverse events. Understanding these differential responses is important to optimize patient care and safety. Toward this, characterizing how loads created by SMT relate to those created by typical motions is fundamental. Using robotic testing, it is now possible to make these comparisons to determine if SMT generates unique loading scenarios. In 12 porcine cadavers, SMT and passive motions were applied to the L3/L4 segment and the resulting kinematics tracked. The L3/L4 segment was removed, mounted in a parallel robot and kinematics of SMT and passive movements replayed robotically. The resulting forces experienced by L3/L4 were collected. Overall, SMT created both significantly greater and smaller loads compared to passive motions, with SMT generating greater anterioposterior peak force (the direction of force application) compared to all passive motions. In some comparisons, SMT did not create significantly different loads in the intact specimen, but did so in specific spinal tissues. Despite methodological differences between studies, SMT forces and loading rates fell below published injury values. Future studies are warranted to understand if loading scenarios unique to SMT confer its differential therapeutic effects.


From the FULL TEXT Article:

Introduction

Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a clinical intervention for low back pain which, by some estimates, is the most frequently used form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). [1] Similarly, SMT is also one of the most studied CAM interventions with over 250 systematic reviews and 550 randomized controlled trials since 2000.

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Chiropractic Care and Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation

By |October 23, 2017|Disc Derangement|

Chiropractic Care and Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Population-based Self-controlled Case Series

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SOURCE:   European Spine Journal 2017 (Oct 17) [Epub]

Cesar A. Hincapie, A. Tomlinson, Pierre Cote,
Raja Rampersaud, Alejandro R. Jadad, J. David Cassidy

Injury Prevention Research Office,
Division of Neurosurgery,
Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute
St. Michael’s Hospital
Toronto, Canada


Purpose   Chiropractic care is popular for low back pain, but may increase the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Low back pain is a common early (prodromal) symptom of LDH and commonly precedes LDH diagnosis. Our objective was to investigate the association between chiropractic care and acute LDH with early surgical intervention, and contrast this with the association between primary care physician (PCP) care and acute LDH with early surgery.

Methods   Using a self-controlled case series design and population-based healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, we investigated all adults with acute LDH requiring emergency department (ED) visit and early surgical intervention from April 1994 to December 2004. The relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery in exposed periods after chiropractic visits relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals, and compared with the relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery following PCP visits.

Results   195 cases of acute LDH with early surgery (within 8 weeks) were identified in a population of more than 100 million person-years. Strong positive associations were found between acute LDH and both chiropractic and PCP visits. The risk for acute LDH with early surgery associated with chiropractic visits was no higher than the risk associated with PCP visits.

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Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation and the Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation

By |September 19, 2017|Disc Derangement, Disc Injury|

Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation and the Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Belief Elicitation Study

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SOURCE:   European Spine Journal 2017 (Sep 18)

Cesar A. Hincapie, J. David Cassidy,
Pierre Côté, Raja Rampersaud
Alejandro R. Jadad, George A. Tomlinson

Injury Prevention Research Office, Division of Neurosurgery,
Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital,
Toronto, Canada


Background   Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) is common for back pain and has been reported to increase the risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but there is no high quality evidence about this. In the absence of good evidence, clinicians can have knowledge and beliefs about the risk. Our purpose was to determine clinicians’ beliefs regarding the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT.

Methods   Using a belief elicitation design, 47 clinicians (16 chiropractors, 15 family physicians and 16 spine surgeons) that treat patients with back pain from primary and tertiary care practices were interviewed. Participants’ elicited incidence estimates of acute LDH among a hypothetical group of patients with acute low back pain treated with and without chiropractic SMT, were used to derive the probability distribution for the relative risk (RR) for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT.

Results   Chiropractors expressed the most optimistic belief (median RR 0.56; IQR 0.39–1.03); family physicians expressed a neutral belief (median RR 0.97; IQR 0.64–1.21); and spine surgeons expressed a slightly more pessimistic belief (median RR 1.07; IQR 0.95–1.29). Clinicians with the most optimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT reduces the incidence of acute LDH by about 60% (median RR 0.42; IQR 0.29–0.53). Those with the most pessimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT increases the incidence of acute LDH by about 30% (median RR 1.29; IQR 1.11–1.59).

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Influences of Lumbar Disc Herniation on the Kinematics in Multi-segmental Spine, Pelvis, and Lower Extremities During Five Activities of Daily Living

By |May 30, 2017|Disc Derangement|

Influences of Lumbar Disc Herniation on the Kinematics in Multi-segmental Spine, Pelvis, and Lower Extremities During Five Activities of Daily Living

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SOURCE:   BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 (May 25); 18 (1): 216

Shengzheng Kuai, Wenyu Zhou, Zhenhua Liao,
Run Ji, Daiqi Guo, Rui Zhang and
Weiqiang Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Haidian District,
Beijing, 100084, China.


BACKGROUND:   Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem that can contribute to motor dysfunction. Previous studies reporting the changes in kinematic characteristics caused by LBP present conflicting results. This study aimed to apply the multisegmental spinal model to investigate the kinematic changes in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) during five activities of daily living (ADLs).

METHODS:   Twenty-six healthy subjects and 7 LDH patients participated in this study and performed level walking, stair climbing, trunk flexion, and ipsilateral and contralateral pickups. The angular displacement of the thorax, upper lumbar (ULx), lower lumbar (LLx), pelvis, hip, and knee was calculated using a modified full-gait-model in the AnyBody modeling system.

RESULTS:   In the patient group, the ULx almost showed no sagittal angular displacement while the LLx remained part of the sagittal angular displacement during trunk flexion and the two pickups. In the two pickups, pelvic tilt and lower extremities’ flexion increased to compensate for the deficiency in lumbar motion. LDH patients exhibited significantly less pelvic rotation during stair climbing and greater pelvic rotation in other ADLs, except in contralateral pickup. In addition, LDH patients demonstrated more antiphase movement in the transverse plane between ULx and LLx, during level walking and stair climbing, between thorax and pelvis in the two pickups.

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Running Exercise Strengthens the Intervertebral Disc

By |May 23, 2017|Chiropractic Care, Disc Derangement|

Running Exercise Strengthens the Intervertebral Disc

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SOURCE:   Scientific Reports 2017 (Apr 19); 7: 45975 ~ FULL TEXT

Daniel L. Belavý,a, Matthew J. Quittner,
Nicola Ridgers, Yuan Ling,
David Connell, and Timo Rantalainen

Deakin University,
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences,
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition,
221 Burwood Highway,
Burwood, Victoria, 3125, Australia.


There is currently no evidence that the intervertebral discs (IVDs) can respond positively to exercise in humans. Some authors have argued that IVD metabolism in humans is too slow to respond anabolically to exercise within the human lifespan. Here we show that chronic running exercise in men and women is associated with better IVD composition (hydration and proteoglycan content) and with IVD hypertrophy. Via quantitative assessment of physical activity we further find that accelerations at fast walking and slow running (2 m/s), but not high-impact tasks, lower intensity walking or static positions, correlated to positive IVD characteristics. These findings represent the first evidence in humans that exercise can be beneficial for the IVD and provide support for the notion that specific exercise protocols may improve IVD material properties in the spine. We anticipate that our findings will be a starting point to better define exercise protocols and physical activity profiles for IVD anabolism in humans.


From the Full-Text Article:

Background

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