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Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation and the Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation

By |September 19, 2017|Disc Derangement, Disc Injury|

Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation and the Risk for Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Belief Elicitation Study

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   European Spine Journal 2017 (Sep 18)

Cesar A. Hincapie, J. David Cassidy,
Pierre Côté, Raja Rampersaud
Alejandro R. Jadad, George A. Tomlinson

Injury Prevention Research Office, Division of Neurosurgery,
Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital,
Toronto, Canada


Background   Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) is common for back pain and has been reported to increase the risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but there is no high quality evidence about this. In the absence of good evidence, clinicians can have knowledge and beliefs about the risk. Our purpose was to determine clinicians’ beliefs regarding the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT.

Methods   Using a belief elicitation design, 47 clinicians (16 chiropractors, 15 family physicians and 16 spine surgeons) that treat patients with back pain from primary and tertiary care practices were interviewed. Participants’ elicited incidence estimates of acute LDH among a hypothetical group of patients with acute low back pain treated with and without chiropractic SMT, were used to derive the probability distribution for the relative risk (RR) for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT.

Results   Chiropractors expressed the most optimistic belief (median RR 0.56; IQR 0.39–1.03); family physicians expressed a neutral belief (median RR 0.97; IQR 0.64–1.21); and spine surgeons expressed a slightly more pessimistic belief (median RR 1.07; IQR 0.95–1.29). Clinicians with the most optimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT reduces the incidence of acute LDH by about 60% (median RR 0.42; IQR 0.29–0.53). Those with the most pessimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT increases the incidence of acute LDH by about 30% (median RR 1.29; IQR 1.11–1.59).

There are more articles like this @ our:

Low Back Pain and Chiropractic Page

and the:

Disc Herniation and Chiropractic Page

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The Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Intervertebral Disc:A Clinician’s Primer

By |September 21, 2014|Continuing Education, Disc Injury|

The Cellular and Molecular Biology
of the Intervertebral Disc: A Clinician’s Primer

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2014 (Sep);   58 (3):   246–257

W. Mark Erwin, DC, PhD and Katherine E. Hood, DC

Assistant Professor, Divisions of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgery,
University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital;
Scientist, Toronto Western Research Institute;
Associate Professor, Research Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.


Clinicians routinely encounter patients suffering from both degenerative and acute spinal pain, often as a consequence of pathology affecting the intervertebral disc (IVD). The IVD is a complex structure essential to spinal function and is subject to degenerative disease and injury. However, due to the complexity of spinal pain syndromes it is often difficult to determine the extent of the IVD’s contribution to the genesis of spinal pain. The location of the IVD is within close proximity to vital neural elements and may in the event of pathological change or injury compromise those structures. It is therefore important that clinicians performing manual therapy understand the cellular and molecular biology of the IVD as well as its clinical manifestation of degeneration/injury in order to safely manage and appreciate the role played by the disc in the development of mechanical spinal pain syndromes.

Keywords:   spine, degenerative, pain, disc, intervertebral


The Full-Text Article:

Introduction:

The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex structure positioned between two adjacent vertebrae where in addition to protecting the spinal cord and segmental spinal nerves it confers flexibility, multi-axial spinal motion and load transmission to the spine. The IVD is vulnerable to injury and degeneration often leading to pain syndromes however much remains to be discovered concerning the development of axial and radicular pain syndromes, the biology of the disc and the capacity of the IVD to repair itself after injury. [1] From the clinician’s perspective, familiarity with the biology of the IVD is vital in order to understand the natural history of disc-related injury/illness and to develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the salient characteristics of IVD pathology with a particular emphasis upon degenerative disease and its role in the generation of clinical spinal pain syndromes.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Disc Herniation and Chiropractic Page

The disc as an organ:

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Outcomes of Acute and Chronic Patients With Magnetic Resonance Imaging

By |May 6, 2014|Chiropractic Care, Disc Injury, Low Back Pain|

Outcomes of Acute and Chronic Patients With Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Confirmed Symptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniations Receiving High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude, Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study With One-Year Follow-Up

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2014 (Mar); 37 (3): 155-163

Serafin Leemann, DC, Cynthia K. Peterson, RN, Christof Schmid, DC, Bernard Anklin, DC, B. Kim Humphreys, DC, PhD

Professor, Chiropractic Medicine and Radiology departments, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. cynthia.peterson@balgrist.ch


Objective   The purposes of this study were to evaluate patients with low-back pain (LBP) and leg pain due to magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed disc herniation who are treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation in terms of their short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes of self-reported global impression of change and pain levels at various time points up to 1 year and to determine if outcomes differ between acute and chronic patients using a prospective, cohort design.

Methods   This prospective cohort outcomes study includes 148 patients (between ages of 18 and 65 years) with LBP, leg pain, and physical examination abnormalities with concordant lumbar disc herniations. Baseline numerical rating scale (NRS) data for LBP, leg pain, and the Oswestry questionnaire were obtained. The specific lumbar spinal manipulation was dependent upon whether the disc herniation was intraforaminal or paramedian as seen on the magnetic resonance images and was performed by a doctor of chiropractic. Outcomes included the patient’s global impression of change scale for overall improvement, the NRS for LBP, leg pain, and the Oswestry questionnaire at 2 weeks, 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year after the first treatment. The proportion of patients reporting “improvement” on the patient’s global impression of change scale was calculated for all patients and acute vs chronic patients. Pretreatment and posttreatment NRS scores were compared using the paired t test. Baseline and follow-up Oswestry scores were compared using the Wilcoxon test. Numerical rating scale and Oswestry scores for acute vs chronic patients were compared using the unpaired t test for NRS scores and the Mann-Whitney U test for Oswestry scores. Logistic regression analysis compared baseline variables with “improvement.”

Results   Significant improvement for all outcomes at all time points was reported (P < .0001). At 3 months, 90.5% of patients were “improved” with 88.0% “improved” at 1 year. Although acute patients improved faster by 3 months, 81.8% of chronic patients reported “improvement” with 89.2% “improved” at 1 year. There were no adverse events reported. (more…)

New Chiropractic and Radicular Pain Study

By |August 31, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Disc Injury, Radiculopathy|

New Chiropractic and Radicular Pain Study

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013 (Aug 12)


Outcomes From Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Confirmed Symptomatic Cervical Disk Herniation Patients Treated With High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study With 3-Month Follow-Up

Cynthia K. Peterson, RN, DC, M.Med.Ed, Christof Schmid, DC,
Serafin Leemann, DC, Bernard Anklin, DC, B. Kim Humphreys, DC, PhD

Professor, Department of Chiropractic Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine,
Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist,
University of Zürich,
Zürich, Switzerland.
xraydcpeterson@yahoo.ca


This newly published prospective cohort study with 3-Month follow-up reports on the outcomes of 50 patients with MRI-confirmed cervical disc herniation who were also experiencing radiculopathy. Some of them were acute cases, but many of them also happened to be chronic pain patients.

A short, 3 month trial of chiropractic care led to significant improvements in all those individuals, and this improvement was sustained 3 months after care ceased.


OBJECTIVE:   The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes of patients with cervical radiculopathy from cervical disk herniation (CDH) who are treated with spinal manipulative therapy.

METHODS:   Adult Swiss patients with neck pain and dermatomal arm pain; sensory, motor, or reflex changes corresponding to the involved nerve root; and at least 1 positive orthopaedic test for cervical radiculopathy were included. Magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed CDH linked with symptoms was required. Baseline data included 2 pain numeric rating scales (NRSs), for neck and arm, and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). At 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months after initial consultation, patients were contacted by telephone, and the NDI, NRSs, and patient’s global impression of change data were collected. High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations were administered by experienced doctors of chiropractic. The proportion of patients responding “better” or “much better” on the patient’s global impression of change scale was calculated. Pretreatment and posttreatment NRSs and NDIs were compared using the Wilcoxon test. Acute vs subacute/chronic patients’ NRSs and NDIs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test.

RESULTS:   Fifty patients were included. At 2 weeks, 55.3% were “improved,” 68.9% at 1 month and 85.7% at 3 months. Statistically significant decreases in neck pain, arm pain, and NDI scores were noted at 1 and 3 months compared with baseline scores (P < .0001). Of the subacute/chronic patients, 76.2% were improved at 3 months.

There are many more articles like this at our:

Radiculopathy and Chiropractic Page

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Chronic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Page

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Early Adolescent Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Injury: A Case Study

By |June 20, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Disc Injury, Pediatrics|

Early Adolescent Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Injury:
A Case Study

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2013 (Apr 26); 21: 13

Chris T Carter, Lyndon G Amorin-Woods and Arockia Doss

School of Health Professions,
Murdoch University,
Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia


This article describes and discusses the case of an adolescent male with lumbar intervertebral disc injury characterized by chronic low back pain (LBP) and antalgia. A 13-year-old boy presented for care with a complaint of chronic LBP and subsequent loss of quality of life. The patient was examined and diagnosed by means of history, clinical testing and use of imaging. He had showed failure in natural history and conservative management relief in both symptomatic and functional improvement, due to injury to the intervertebral joints of his lower lumbar spine. Discogenic LBP in the young adolescent population must be considered, particularly in cases involving even trivial minor trauma, and in those in which LBP becomes chronic. More research is needed regarding long-term implications of such disc injuries in young people, and how to best conservatively manage these patients. A discussion of discogenic LBP pertaining to adolescent disc injury is included.


The Full-Text Article:

Background

LBP in children and adolescence is an important and increasing problem, and prevalence increases with age [1]. Systematic review and meta-analysis studies of LBP in adolescence found mean LBP point prevalence and one-year prevalence for adolescents to be around 12%, and 33% respectively [2,3]. Watson et al. [4] reported a one month period prevalence of 24% in schoolchildren aged 11–14 years in northwest England. Historically considered as trivial and non-limiting, LBP in this age-group may have both immediate and long-term consequences for an important proportion of those affected [4]. Risk factors have been debated, although ergonomics of school furniture, school bag weight and mechanics, trauma, history of scoliosis, and involvement of strenuous physical activity may be associative or causative factors in young persons with LBP [5]. There is also increasing evidence that psychological and psychosocial factors may play a significant influence in the aetiology of LBP in this age group [6, 7].

There are many more articles like this in our:

Chiropractic Pediatrics Section

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Disc Herniation and Chiropractic Page

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