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Chiropractic Use of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) in Research

By |October 23, 2015|Chiropractic Research, Education|

The Origin, and Application of Somatosensory
Evoked Potentials as a Neurophysiological Technique to Investigate Neuroplasticity

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2014 (Jun);   58 (2): 170–183 ~ FULL TEXT

Steven R. Passmore, DC, PhD, Bernadette Murphy, DC, PhD,
and Timothy D. Lee, PhD

McMaster University
University of Ontario,
Institute of Technology

Somatosensory evoked potentionals (SEPs) can be used to elucidate differences in cortical activity associated with a spinal manipulation (SM) intervention. The purpose of this narrative review is to overview the origin and application of SEPs, a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity. Summaries of:

1) parameters for SEP generation and waveform recording;
2) SEP peak nomenclature, interpretation and generators;
3) peaks pertaining to tactile information processing (relevant to both chiropractic and other manual therapies);
4) utilization and application of SEPs;
5) SEPs concurrent with an experimental task and at baseline/control/pretest;
6) SEPs pain studies; and
7) SEPs design (pre/post) and neural reorganization/neuroplasticity; and
8) SEPs and future chiropractic research are all reviewed.

Understanding what SEPs are, and their application allows chiropractors, educators, and other manual therapists interested in SM to understand the context, and importance of research findings from SM studies that involve SEPs.


Anatomy Curriculum For Chiropractic Training

By |January 10, 2015|Education|

Emphasis On Various Subtopics in the Anatomy Curriculum For Chiropractic Training: An International Survey of Chiropractors and Anatomists

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   J Chiropractic Ed 2014 (Dec 17); 29 (1): 37-42

Peter D. Chapman, MChiro, Amanda Meyer, PhD,
Kenneth Young, DC, MAppSc, Daniel Wibowo, MD,
and Bruce Walker, DrPH

Objective:   The aim of this study was to conduct an international survey of the perceived optimal level of anatomy teaching from anatomy academics and practicing chiropractors. We hypothesized that the optimum level of anatomical understanding for chiropractic students does not differ between the anatomists teaching the students and practicing chiropractors.

Methods:   The opinion of anatomists teaching in a chiropractic course (n = 16) was compared to practicing chiropractors (n = 589). The students’ level of understanding was based on the revised Bloom’s taxonomy for 16 different curriculum areas. Anatomists were recruited by contacting the accredited chiropractic courses worldwide. Snowball sampling was used for the practicing chiropractors. Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the results of anatomists and chiropractors.

Results:   Opinions differed between anatomists and chiropractors on 9 out of the 16 questions. Where opinions differed, chiropractors recommended a higher standard of anatomical knowledge. The level suggested by chiropractors for these curriculum areas is equal to the “evaluating” level where chiropractic students can remember, understand, apply, and analyze anatomical knowledge to be able to justify a clinical decision.

Conclusion:   Compared to anatomists working in chiropractic programs, chiropractors suggest a higher standard of anatomy be taught to undergraduates. Collaboration between chiropractors and anatomists would likely be beneficial in creating or modifying anatomy curricula for chiropractic students.

From the FULL TEXT Article:


A sufficient knowledge or mastery of human anatomy is required by those working in the health professions. The level of knowledge differs among the different professions, with some requiring an in-depth knowledge of specific parts of the body rather than general anatomical knowledge. For example, dental students require emphasis on the oral cavity and podiatrists on the feet. For chiropractors, there is little research on the depth and breadth of research required for safe and effective practice. In Australia this situation is not unique to chiropractic; studies at medical schools have found that there is no consensus on exactly what students need to know. [1] Excerpts from accreditation requirements of several chiropractic bodies are shown in the Appendix (available online as supplemental material at

The Council on Chiropractic Education Australasia [2 has broad accreditation standards for teaching basic sciences, including anatomy. The documentation outlines that chiropractic student basic science should cover ‘‘a core of information on the fundamental structures, functions and interrelationships of the body systems.’’ [2] The vagueness of this statement and the lack of a national standardized anatomy curriculum in chiropractic education make teaching anatomy to chiropractic students quite challenging. A review of a convenience sample of the websites of 6 chiropractic schools indicates that the teaching of anatomy differs. We selected these programs because their anatomy syllabi were available online. The reasons for the differences observed are not clear. In addition, it is not clear if the syllabi surpass or meet the level required by the various accreditation authorities. Thus, what is the optimum level of anatomy to be taught? This study attempts to address this question.

From a pedagogical perspective, a synergy exists between the retention of anatomical knowledge and clinical application in chiropractic students. [3] The ability to differentially diagnose patients requires that chiropractic students have sufficient anatomical knowledge. The majority of patients seeking chiropractic care are affected by back and neck problems. [4] However, some serious and life-threatening medical conditions, such as a dissecting aortic aneurysm, ectopic pregnancy, or myocardial infarction, can in fact present as acute back pain. [5] As point-of-entry health care professionals, chiropractors must have enough anatomical knowledge and the ability to apply it clinically to diagnose a patient in order to decide if the patient should be referred to another medical professional. It is therefore necessary to design a suitable course of anatomy that provides fundamental knowledge that enables the chiropractor to be able to diagnose or treat a patient within his or her special interest area.

SOURCE:   Read the rest of this Full Text article now!

Chiropractic Approach to the Management of Children

By |May 18, 2014|Chiropractic Care, Education, Pediatrics|

Chiropractic Approach to the Management of Children

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010 (Jun 2);   18:   16 ~ FULL TEXT

Sharon A Vallone, Joyce Miller, Annica Larsdotter, and Jennifer Barham-Floreani

Private Practice,
Connecticut, USA.

Background   Chiropractic (Greek: done by hand) is a health care profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health. There is an emphasis on manual techniques, including joint adjustment and/or manipulation, with a particular focus on joint subluxation (World Health Organization 2005) or mechanical lesion and restoring function. The chiropractor’s role in wellness care, prevention and treatment of injury or illness is based on education in anatomy and physiology, nutrition, exercise and healthy lifestyle counseling as well as referral to other health practitioners. Depending on education, geographic location, scope of practice, as well as consumer preference, chiropractors may assume the role of primary care for families who are pursuing a more natural and holistic approach to health care for their families.

Objective   To present a perspective on current management of the paediatric patient by members of the chiropractic profession and to make recommendations as to how the profession can safely and effectively manage the paediatric patient.

Discussion   The chiropractic profession holds the responsibility of ethical and safe practice and requires the cultivation and mastery of both an academic foundation and clinical expertise that distinguishes chiropractic from other disciplines.

Research into the effectiveness of chiropractic care for paediatric patients has lagged behind that of adult care, but this is being addressed through educational programs where research is now being incorporated into academic tracks to attain advanced chiropractic degrees.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Chiropractic Pediatrics Section


Updated Reference Guide to Dr. Richard C. Schafer’s Works

By |March 23, 2014|Education|

Updated Reference Guide
to Dr. Richard C. Schafer’s Works

The Chiro.Org Blog

There are now 63 different Chapters from Dr. Schafer’s various best-selling textbooks for your review, available exclusively at Chiro.Org

These learned articles by Dr. Schafer can be found again easily by selecting the CATEGORY titled EDUCATION, on the right-hand side of this page, just below Recent Comments. We hope you will find them of interest.

Our thanks to ACAPress for access to these materials!

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.

Applied Physiotherapy in Chiropractic
Chap 1   The Rationale of Physiotherapy in Chiropractic
Chap 3   Commonly Used Meridian Points
Chap 13   Rehabilitation Methodology
Chap 15   Chiropractic Perspectives On Myofascial Therapy
Basic Chiropractic Procedural Manual
(Emphasizing Geriatric Considerations)
Chap 1   Basic Principles and Practice of Chiropractic
Chap 3   Orthopedic and Neurologic Procedures in Chiropractic
Chap 6   Radiologic Manifestations of Spinal Subluxations
Chap 8   A Compendium of Clinical Geriatrics
Chap 10   Introduction to Chiropractic Physiologic Therapeutics
Basic Principles of Chiropractic Neuroscience
Chap 1   An Introduction to the Principles of Chiropractic
Chap 2   General Principles of Clinical Neurology
Chap 3   The Longitudinal Neurologic Systems
Chap 4   The Horizontal Neurologic Levels
Chap 5   Neuroconceptual Models of Chiropractic
Chap 6   Causes and Potential Effects of the Subluxation Complex
Chap 7   Specific Potentialities of the Subluxation Complex
Chap 8   Clinical Disorders and the Sensory System
Chap 9   Clinical Disorders and the Motor System
Chap 10   Clinical Disorders and the Autonomic Nervous System

Southern California University of Health Sciences Selected for the Department of Veterans Affairs’ First-Ever Chiropractic Residency Program

By |January 8, 2014|Education|

Source PR NewsWire

WHITTIER, Calif.Jan. 6, 2014 /PRNewswire/ — Southern California University of Health Sciences (SCUHS) is proud to announce its participation in the first ever VA chiropractic residency training program. On December 6, 2013, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) unveiled its plan to initiate a pioneering chiropractic residency program beginning in July, 2014.

The focus of each VA residency program is Integrated Clinical Practice, with training that will emphasize the provision of chiropractic care as an important part of an integrated healthcare system. These hospital-based training programs will also expand each resident’s ability to collaborate with other healthcare professionals through interdisciplinary rotations. Residents will develop their knowledge of hospital practice, policies and procedures, and will be better prepared for future positions in VA, other healthcare systems, and/or academic settings.

After a highly competitive application process, only five VA medical centers and four academic affiliates were chosen nationwide to pilot this program. Several competing VA medical centers and academic institutions attempted to earn this distinction and as one of the four chosen academic affiliates, Southern California University is honored to partner with the well-known and well-respected VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (VAGLAHS). 

“To our delight, today’s healthcare environment continues to moves towards interdisciplinary practice and team care,” said Dr.Melissa Nagare Kimura, Chief Clinical Officer and Associate Vice President for SCU Health System. “SCU prides itself in cultivating an environment of evidence-informed inter-professional education and practice, and this is just one reason why the university is thrilled to be a part of such an innovative program.”

This new residency will provide advanced clinical training in complex case management, allowing recent chiropractic graduates to increase their scope and depth of clinical knowledge, experience and acumen. Residents will be mentored by senior VA chiropractors who are national leaders in integrated chiropractic practice. These clinicians will share their expertise in patient care, academics and research to provide a robust educational experience.

According to Dr. John Scaringe, President of Southern California University of Health Sciences, “This is not only exciting news for SCU, but also for chiropractic doctors and students nationwide. This opportunity, created by the Department of Veterans Affairs, shows that the VA embraces chiropractic as a specialty and should be viewed as a pioneering effort. Everyone at SCU could not be more pleased to be a part of this program launch and could not be more honored to be working as the academic affiliate for the distinguished VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System.”

The programs will be administered nationally by VA’s Office of Academic Affiliations and locally by each individual participating VA facility. Each VA facility partners with its affiliated Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) accredited chiropractic school in conducting the program.

Havard’s School of Public Health and Medical School sponsoring their course in clinical trials for FREE.

By |June 9, 2013|Education, Ethics, Medicine, Public Health, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research|

HSPH-HMS214X Fundamentals of Clinical Trials is just one of the courses offered at

Ever wonder what it would be like to take a course offered at an Ivy League University? Wonder no more! Harvard is part of a consortium of the most prestigious Universities in the world that is offering MOOC‘s (Massive Open Online Courses). There are no costs involved in taking a MOOC and you get all the same information that you would in an on ground course. The only differences are that you don’t get the instructor (or even TA’s) grading your papers nor will you get college credit on a transcript from Harvard. They are however the same information used in the universities’ on ground for-credit courses that can cost thousands of dollars.

MOOC’s typically use open source materials (available at no charge for personal use) and a type of self grading system based off of discussion forums in the course (It is totally up to the professor how that is handled, so it will vary depending on the course and instructor). They are a combination of one answer to cutting high educational and making it available to everyone.

The course begins October 14, 2013, runs a total of 13 weeks and depending on your background will take between 4-6 hours of your time each week. A background in biostatistics and epidemiology equivalent to the content of PH207X Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research.

From the course site;

This course will provide an introduction to the scientific, statistical, and ethical aspects of clinical trials research. Topics include the design, implementation, and analysis of trials, including first-in-human studies (dose-finding, safety, proof of concept, and Phase I), Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV studies. All aspects of the development of a study protocol will be addressed, including criteria for the selection of participants, treatments, and endpoints, randomization procedures, sample size determination, data analysis, and study interpretation. The ethical issues that arise at each phase of therapy development will be explored.