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Association Between Forward Head, Rounded Shoulders, and Increased Thoracic Kyphosis

By |March 16, 2018|Forward Head Posture|

Association Between Forward Head, Rounded Shoulders, and Increased Thoracic Kyphosis: A Review of the Literature

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SOURCE:   J Chiropractic Medicine 2017 (Sep); 16 (3): 220–229

Deepika Singla, MPT Sports, BPT and Zubia Veqar, PhD, MPT Ortho, BPT

Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences,
Jamia Millia Islamia,
Jamia Nagar, Okhla, Delhi, India



OBJECTIVE:   The purpose of this review was to explore the association between forward head posture, rounded shoulders, and increased thoracic kyphosis.

METHODS:   The PubMed, ERIC, and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words posture, head, shoulder, forward scapular posture, and thoracic kyphosis through December 2016.

RESULTS:   Our initial search yielded 6,840 research studies, 6,769 of which were excluded because they either were duplicates or did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. After the abstracts of the remaining studies were read, 15 were assessed for eligibility, and only 4 papers were included in the present review. Cervical lordosis values were found to be significantly associated with thoracic kyphosis values. Also, there were significant correlations between rounded shoulders and increased thoracic kyphosis.

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Reflex Control of the Spine and Posture

By |March 12, 2015|Forward Head Posture|

Reflex Control of the Spine and Posture: A Review of the Literature From a Chiropractic Perspective

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SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2005 (Aug 9);   13:   16

Mark W Morningstar, Burl R Pettibon, Heidi Schlappi,
Mark Schlappi, and Trevor V Ireland

The Pettibon Institute,
Gig Harbor, WA 98335, USA.
morningstar@pettiboninstitute.org


OBJECTIVE:   This review details the anatomy and interactions of the postural and somatosensory reflexes. We attempt to identify the important role the nervous system plays in maintaining reflex control of the spine and posture. We also review, illustrate, and discuss how the human vertebral column develops, functions, and adapts to Earth’s gravity in an upright position. We identify functional characteristics of the postural reflexes by reporting previous observations of subjects during periods of microgravity or weightlessness.

BACKGROUND:   Historically, chiropractic has centered around the concept that the nervous system controls and regulates all other bodily systems; and that disruption to normal nervous system function can contribute to a wide variety of common ailments. Surprisingly, the chiropractic literature has paid relatively little attention to the importance of neurological regulation of static upright human posture. With so much information available on how posture may affect health and function, we felt it important to review the neuroanatomical structures and pathways responsible for maintaining the spine and posture. Maintenance of static upright posture is regulated by the nervous system through the various postural reflexes. Hence, from a chiropractic standpoint, it is clinically beneficial to understand how the individual postural reflexes work, as it may explain some of the clinical presentations seen in chiropractic practice.

METHOD:   We performed a manual search for available relevant textbooks, and a computer search of the MEDLINE, MANTIS, and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases from 1970 to present, using the following key words and phrases: “posture, ” “ocular, ” “vestibular, ” “cervical facet joint, ” “afferent, ” “vestibulocollic, ” “cervicocollic, ” “postural reflexes, ” “spaceflight, ” “microgravity, ” “weightlessness, ” “gravity, ” “posture, ” and “postural.” Studies were selected if they specifically tested any or all of the postural reflexes either in Earth’s gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review.

DISCUSSION:   It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments.

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The Effect of Adding Forward Head Posture Corrective Exercises in the Management of Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: A Randomized Controlled Study

By |March 10, 2015|Forward Head Posture|

The Effect of Adding Forward Head Posture Corrective Exercises in the Management of Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: A Randomized Controlled Study

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SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015 (Feb 19) [Epub ahead of print]

Ibrahim M. Moustafa, PT, PhD, Aliaa A. Diab, PT, PhD

Assistant Professor,
Basic Science Department,
Faculty of Physical Therapy,
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
ibrahiem.mostafa@pt.cu.edu.eg


Objective   The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of forward head posture correction, in patients with chronic discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy.

Methods   This randomized clinical study included 154 adult patients (54 females) who experienced chronic discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy and had forward head posture. One group received a functional restoration program, and the experimental group received forward head posture corrective exercises. Primary outcomes were the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes included the anterior head translation, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, trunk inclination, lateral deviation, trunk imbalance, surface rotation, pelvic inclination, leg and back pain scores, and H-reflex latency and amplitude. Patients were assessed at 3 intervals (pretreatment, 10-week posttreatment, and 2-year follow-up).

Results   A general linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the experimental group on the measures of ODI (F = 89.7; P < .0005), anterior head translation (F = 23.6; P < .0005), H-reflex amplitude (F = 151.4; P < .0005), H-reflex latency (F = 99.2; P < .0005), back pain (F = 140.8; P < .0005), and leg pain (F = 72; P < .0005). After 10 weeks, the results revealed an insignificant difference between the groups for ODI (P = .08), back pain (P = .29), leg pain (P = .019), H-reflex amplitude (P = .09), and H-reflex latency (P = .098). At the 2-year follow-up, there were significant differences between the groups for all variables adopted for this study (P < .05).

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Musculoskeletal Abnormalities in Chronic Headache: A Controlled Comparison of Headache Diagnostic Groups

By |January 15, 2014|Chiropractic Care, Forward Head Posture, Headache, Posture|

Musculoskeletal Abnormalities in Chronic Headache: A Controlled Comparison of Headache Diagnostic Groups

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SOURCE:   Headache. 1999 (Jan);   39 (1):   21–27

Marcus DA, Scharff L, Mercer S, Turk DC.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh (Penn) School of Medicine, USA.


The presence of postural, myofascial, and mechanical abnormalities in patients with migraine, tension-type headache, or both headache diagnoses was compared to a headache-free control sample. Twenty-four control subjects were obtained from a convenience sampling and each was matched by age and sex to three patients with headache (one with migraine [with or without aura], one with tension-type headache, and one with diagnoses of both migraine and tension-type headache [combined diagnosis]) who had been previously assessed by a physical therapist at a headache clinic. Physical therapy assessment findings were compared among the four groups.

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Effect of Backpack Load Carriage on Cervical Posture in Primary Schoolchildren

By |February 11, 2012|Backpacks, Forward Head Posture, Pediatrics|

Effect of Backpack Load Carriage on Cervical Posture in Primary Schoolchildren

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Work. 2012 (Jan 1);   41 (1):   99—108

By Fran Kistner, Ira Fiebert, Kathryn Roach

School of Physical Therapy, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Worcester, MA, USA.


Objective:   This study examined the effects of various backpack loads on elementary schoolchildren’s posture and postural compensations as demonstrated by a change in forward head position.

Subjects:   A convenience sample of 11 schoolchildren, aged 8-11 years participated.

Methods:   Sagittal digital photographs were taken of each subject standing without a backpack, and then with the loaded backpack before and after walking 6 minutes (6MWT) at free walking speed. This was repeated over three consecutive weeks using backpacks containing randomly assigned weights of 10%, 15%, or 20% body weight of each respective subject. The craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured using digitizing software, recorded and analyzed. (more…)

Forward Head Posture

By |August 11, 2010|Education, Forward Head Posture|

Forward Head Posture

The Chiro.Org Blog


Have you dropped by the Forward Head Posture Page lately?

There have been several new articles added recently.

According to Kapandji (Physiology of the Joints, Volume III), for every inch your head moves forwards, it gains 10 pounds in weight, as far as the muscles in your upper back and neck are concerned. That’s because because they have to work that much harder to keep the head (chin) from crashing onto your chest. This abnormal positioning also forces the suboccipital muscles (the ones that raise the chin) to remain in constant contraction, putting pressure on the 3 suboccipital nerves.

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