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The Physiological Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor in Human Immunity and Its Potential Implications in Spinal Manipulative Therapy

By |October 1, 2016|Immune Function, Spinal Manipulation|

The Physiological Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor in Human Immunity and Its Potential Implications in Spinal Manipulative Therapy:   A Narrative Literature Review

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Chiropractic Medicine 2016 (Sep)

Liang Zhang, MD, PhD, Chao Hua Yao, MD

Palmer College of Chiropractic,
Florida Campus, Port Orange, FL;
Palmer Laboratory of Cell & Molecular Biology,
Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research,
Port Orange, FL.


OBJECTIVE:   Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known inflammatory cytokine in the pathological development of various human diseases, its physiological roles are not widely understood nor appreciated. The molecular mechanisms underlying spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) remain elusive. The relationship between TNF and SMT is unclear. Thus, we performed this literature review to better understand TNF physiology and its potential relationship with SMT, and we propose a novel mechanism by which SMT may achieve clinical benefits by using certain beneficial features of TNF.

METHODS:   We searched several databases for relevant articles published between 1975 and 2015 and then reexamined the studies from current immunophysiological perspectives.

RESULTS:   The history and recent progresses in TNF physiology research were explored. Conflicting reports on the relationship between TNF and SMT were identified. Based on the newly discovered interaction between TNF and regulatory T cells, we proposed a putative biphasic TNF response to SMT, which may resolve the conflicts in the reported observations and interpretations.

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Newer antimicrobial therapies proposed may lead to resistance of human innate immune response.

By |February 23, 2012|Ethics, Fever Management, General Health, Health Care, Immune Function, Immune System, Medicine, Public Health, Research, Safety|

One current trend into fighting antibiotic resistant bacteria is developing a new class refered to as antimicrobial peptides (AMP’s). However a newly published study published1 a proof of concept that bacteria will develop not only resistance to these new drugs but to our own innate immune response peptides as well.

A very nice summary of the findings was published in the latest issue of The Scientist online magazine.2

1. G. J. L. Habets, Michelle, and Michael Brockhurst. “Therapeutic
antimicrobial peptides may compromise natural immunity .” Biology Letters. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/01/20/rsbl.2011.1203

2. Richards, Sabrina. “Antimicrobial Cross-Resistance Risk | The Scientist.” The Scientist. N.p., 24 Jan. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://the-scientist.com/2012/01/24/antimicrobial-cross-resistance-risk/

Immune Responses to Spinal Manipulation

By |May 1, 2011|Immune Function, Research, Spinal Manipulation|

Immune Responses to Spinal Manipulation

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Dynamic Chiropractic ~ May 6, 2011

By Malik Slosberg, DC, MS


For many years, chiropractors have observed in their own practices that their patients sometimes demonstrate improvements of complaints related to immune problems: the disappearance or lessening of allergy symptoms, quicker recovery from or less frequent and severe colds and other respiratory infections, and so on.

In the scientific literature, there have been occasional case reports that corroborate such findings, but no sound evidence to really document their veracity. These clinical observations remain suspended in that grey area unsubstantiated by scientific data to confirm their validity. Significant limitations of changes attributed to spinal manipulation in individual patients include

1) there is never a control group;
2) there is no blinding;
3) the improvement may simply be due to time;
4) they may be a nonspecific effect of care and attention;
5) it may be a regression to the mean; or
6) the result may be due to something other than spinal manipulation.

In some large studies, it has been found that chiropractic care for nonmusculoskeletal conditions is only weakly to moderately successful, but rarely harmful. [1-2] The most recent and thorough systematic literature review found that the evidence for effectiveness of spinal manipulation was inconclusive for nonmusculoskeletal conditions. [3]

Despite the lack of evidence of clinical effectiveness for nonmusculoskeletal conditions, a series of recent studies from several international research groups is systematically building the case that spinal manipulation appears to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase the blood levels of immunoregulatory cytokines. Cytokines are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by numerous cells of the immune system and are a category of signaling molecules used extensively in intercellular communication.

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Early Life Infections and the Immune System

By |July 25, 2009|Education, Health, Immune Function, Immune System|

Early Life Infections and the Immune System

The Chiro.Org Blog


There is a growing body of literature suggesting that early (infant) antibiotic use (and perhaps vaccination) is associated with increased incidence of adolescent diseases like asthma, and other atopic diseases like hay fever and eczema.

The general consensus seems to be that the Immune System is strengthened by fighting early mild infections, and that surpressing them artificially, with antibiotics and certain vaccines, leaves the child more prone to atopy later in life. At least that’s what the statistics seems to point to. (more…)