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Spinal Manipulative Therapy and Exercise For Seniors with Chronic Neck Pain

By |March 6, 2015|Chiropractic Care, Chronic Pain, Neck Pain|

Spinal Manipulative Therapy and Exercise For Seniors with Chronic Neck Pain

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Spine J. 2014 (Sep 1);   14 (9):   1879–1889

Michele Maiers, DC, MPH, Gert Bronfort, DC, PhD,
Roni Evans, DC, MS, Jan Hartvigsen, DC, PhD,
Kenneth Svendsen, MS, Yiscah Bracha, MS,
Craig Schulz, DC, MS, Karen Schulz, DC,
Richard Grimm, MD, PhD

Northwestern Health Sciences University,
Wolfe-Harris Center for Clinical Studies,
2501 W. 84th St, Bloomington, MN 55431, USA
mmaiers@nwhealth.edu


BACKGROUND CONTEXT:   Neck pain, common among the elderly population, has considerable implications on health and quality of life. Evidence supports the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and exercise to treat neck pain; however, no studies to date have evaluated the effectiveness of these therapies specifically in seniors.

PURPOSE:   To assess the relative effectiveness of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise, both in combination with and compared to home exercise (HE) alone for neck pain in individuals ages 65 years or older.

STUDY DESIGN/SETTING:   Randomized clinical trial.

PATIENT SAMPLE:   Individuals 65 years of age or older with a primary complaint of mechanical neck pain, rated =3 (0-10) for 12 weeks or longer in duration.

OUTCOME MEASURES:   Patient self-report outcomes were collected at baseline and 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. The primary outcome was pain, measured by an 11-box numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes included disability (Neck Disability Index), general health status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36), satisfaction (7-point scale), improvement (9-point scale), and medication use (days per week).

METHODS:   This study was funded by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. Linear mixed model analyses were used for comparisons at individual time points and for short- and long-term analyses. Blinded evaluations of objective outcomes were performed at baseline and 12 weeks. Adverse event data were collected at each treatment visit.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Chronic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Page

(more…)

Treatment Preferences Amongst Physical Therapists and Chiropractors for the Management of Neck Pain: Results of an International Survey

By |March 30, 2014|Neck Pain|

Treatment Preferences Amongst Physical Therapists and Chiropractors for the Management of Neck Pain: Results of an International Survey

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2014 (Mar 24);   22 (1):   11

Lisa C Carlesso, Joy C MacDermid, Anita R Gross,
David M Walton, P Lina Santaguida

Toronto Western Research Institute,
University Health Network,
399 Bathurst Street – MP11-328,
Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada


BACKGROUND:   Clinical practice guidelines on the management of neck pain make recommendations to help practitioners optimize patient care. By examining the practice patterns of practitioners, adherence to CPGs or lack thereof, is demonstrated. Understanding utilization of various treatments by practitioners and comparing these patterns to that of recommended guidelines is important to identify gaps for knowledge translation and improve treatment regimens.Aim: To describe the utilization of interventions in patients with neck pain by clinicians.

METHODS:   A cross-sectional international survey was conducted from February 2012 to March 2013 to determine physical medicine, complementary and alternative medicine utilization amongst 360 clinicians treating patients with neck pain.

RESULTS:   The survey was international (19 countries) with Canada having the largest response (38%). Results were analyzed by usage amongst physical therapists (38%) and chiropractors (31%) as they were the predominant respondents. Within these professions, respondents were male (41-66%) working in private practice (69-95%). Exercise and manual therapies were consistently (98-99%) used by both professions but tests of subgroup differences determined that physical therapists used exercise, orthoses and ‘other’ interventions more, while chiropractors used phototherapeutics more. However, phototherapeutics (65%), Orthoses/supportive devices (57%), mechanical traction (55%) and sonic therapies (54%) were not used by the majority of respondents. Thermal applications (73%) and acupuncture (46%) were the modalities used most commonly. Analysis of differences across the subtypes of neck pain indicated that respondents utilize treatments more often for chronic neck pain and whiplash conditions, followed by radiculopathy, acute neck pain and whiplash conditions, and facet joint dysfunction by diagnostic block. The higher rates of usage of some interventions were consistent with supporting evidence (e.g. manual therapy). However, there was moderate usage of a number of interventions that have limited support or conflicting evidence (e.g. ergonomics).

CONCLUSIONS:   This survey indicates that exercise and manual therapy are core treatments provided by chiropractors and physical therapists. Future research should address gaps in evidence associated with variable practice patterns and knowledge translation to reduce usage of some interventions that have been shown to be ineffective.


From the Full-Text Article:

Background

Clinical practice guidelines are developed to provide statements and recommendations with the intention of helping practitioners optimize patient care [1]. By examining the practice patterns of practitioners, adherence to CPGs or lack thereof, is demonstrated. Recommendations for practice can then be formed. Understanding existing practice patterns provides insight into how current evidence impacts on practice and can identify where greater efforts in knowledge translation are needed. Clinical practice will vary dependent on a number of factors such as location, resources available, patient population, and professional background. Several CPGs from varying professionals who treat patients with neck pain exist [2-5]. To our knowledge no examination of practice patterns across health care professionals who treat patients with neck pain has been published.

(more…)

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Chiropractic Treatment of Adults With Neck Pain

By |November 28, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Research, Evidence-based Medicine, Neck Pain|

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Chiropractic Treatment of Adults With Neck Pain

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2014 (Jan);   37 (1):   42–63

Roland Bryans, DC, Philip Decina, DC, Martin Descarreaux, DC, PhD, Mireille Duranleau, DC, Henri Marcoux, DC, Brock Potter, BSc, DC, Richard P. Ruegg, PhD, DCs, Lynn Shaw, PhD, OT, Robert Watkin, BA, LLB, Eleanor White, MSc, DC

Guidelines Development Committee (GDC) Chairman; Chiropractor, Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada.


OBJECTIVE:   The purpose of this study was to develop evidence-based treatment recommendations for the treatment of nonspecific (mechanical) neck pain in adults.

METHODS:   Systematic literature searches of controlled clinical trials published through December 2011 relevant to chiropractic practice were conducted using the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and the Cochrane Library. The number, quality, and consistency of findings were considered to assign an overall strength of evidence (strong, moderate, weak, or conflicting) and to formulate treatment recommendations.

RESULTS:   Forty-one randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria and scoring a low risk of bias were used to develop 11 treatment recommendations. Strong recommendations were made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with manipulation, manual therapy, and exercise in combination with other modalities. Strong recommendations were also made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with stretching, strengthening, and endurance exercises alone. Moderate recommendations were made for the treatment of acute neck pain with manipulation and mobilization in combination with other modalities. Moderate recommendations were made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with mobilization as well as massage in combination with other therapies. A weak recommendation was made for the treatment of acute neck pain with exercise alone and the treatment of chronic neck pain with manipulation alone. Thoracic manipulation and trigger point therapy could not be recommended for the treatment of acute neck pain. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation, thoracic manipulation, laser, and traction could not be recommended for the treatment of chronic neck pain.

CONCLUSIONS:   Interventions commonly used in chiropractic care improve outcomes for the treatment of acute and chronic neck pain. Increased benefit has been shown in several instances where a multimodal approach to neck pain has been used.


Thanks to Dynamic Chiropractic for these comments from their article:
The Science of Treating Neck Pain

Following a literature search of controlled clinical trials through December 2011, 560 studies were narrowed to 41 that met the authors’ inclusion criteria and served as the basis for their treatment recommendations, graded as strong, moderate or weak based on the number, quality and consistency of research results.

Treatment strategies given strong recommendations for chronic neck pain included manipulation, manual therapy and exercise in combination with other modalities; as well as stretching, strengthening and endurance exercises alone.

Mobilization, as well as massage in combination with other therapies, received moderate recommendations for chronic neck pain.

Manipulation and mobilization in combination with other modalities received moderate recommendations for treating acute neck pain.

Here are the recommendations:


Acute Neck Pain


  • Manipulation / Multimodal:   “Spinal manipulative therapy is recommended for the treatment of acute neck pain for both short- and long-term benefit (pain and the number of days to recover) when used in combination with other treatment modalities (advice, exercise, and mobilization;
    (grade of recommendation – moderate).”

  • Mobilization/ Multimodal:   “Mobilization is recommended for the treatment of acute neck pain for short-term (up to 12 weeks) and long-term benefit (days to recovery, pain) in combination with advice and exercise
    (grade of recommendation – moderate).”

  • Exercise:   “Home exercise with advice or training is recommended in the treatment of acute neck pain for both long- and short-term benefits
    (neck pain; grade of recommendation – weak).”


Chronic Neck Pain

  • Manipulation / Multimodal:   “Spinal manipulative therapy is recommended in the treatment of chronic neck pain as part of a multimodal approach (including advice, upper thoracic high-velocity low-amplitude thrust, low-level laser therapy, soft-tissue therapy, mobilizations, pulsed short-wave diathermy, exercise, massage, and stretching) for both short- and long-term benefit
    (pain, disability, cROMs; grade of recommendation – strong).”

  • Manual Therapy / Multimodal:   “Manual therapy is recommended in the treatment of chronic neck pain for the short- and long-term benefit (pain, disability, cROM, strength) in combination with advice, stretching, and exercise
    (grade of recommendation – strong).”

  • Exercise:   “Regular home stretching (3-5 times per week) with advice / training is recommended in the treatment of chronic neck pain for long- and short-term benefits in reducing pain and analgesic intake
    (grade of recommendation – strong).”

  • Exercise / Multimodal:   “Exercise (including stretching, isometric, stabilization, and strengthening) is recommended for short- and long-term benefits (pain, disability, muscle strength, QoL, cROM) as part of a multimodal approach to the treatment of chronic neck pain when combined with infrared radiation, massage, or other physical therapies
    (grade of recommendation – strong).”

  • Mobilization:   “Mobilization is recommended for the treatment of chronic neck pain for short-term (immediate) benefit
    (pain, cROM; grade of recommendation – moderate)”

  • Massage / Multimodal:   “Massage is recommended for the treatment of chronic neck pain for short-term (up to 1 month) benefit (pain, disability, and cROM) when provided in combination with self-care, stretching, and/or exercise (grade of recommendation – moderate).”

  • Manipulation:   “Spinal manipulative therapy is recommended in the treatment of chronic neck pain for short- and long-term benefit
    (pain, disability; grade of recommendation – weak).”


In their conclusion, the authors note that their findings suggest “interventions commonly used in chiropractic care improve outcomes for the treatment of acute and chronic neck pain” and that “increased benefit has been shown in several instances where a multimodal approach to neck pain has been used.”


There are more articles like this @ our:

Clinical Model for the Diagnosis and Management Page and the:

Chronic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Page

The Prevalence and Progression of Neck and Back Pain in Children Over Time

By |July 3, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Neck Pain, Pediatrics|

The Prevalence and Progression of Neck and Back Pain in Children Over Time

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Musculoskelet Disord. 2011 (May 16); 12: 98

Per Kjaer, Niels Wedderkopp, Lars Korsholm,
and Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde

Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics,
Part of Clinical Locomotion Network,
University of Southern Denmark,
Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense, Denmark


The following article appears to be the first study to track and review the progression of back pain in the same group of children, over a prolonged period, to see how (or if) it is a contributor to those same complains in adulthood.

Of particular interest is Table 2, because it breaks down and tracks complaints of either neck, mid back, or low back pain in the same group of children at 3 different time periods: ages 9, 13 and 15 years old.

Table 2: Prevalence rates of different types of back pain in a cohort of Danish children/adolescents surveyed at three time points

  Age Group  
Age 9
Age 13
Age 15
Neck Pain
All children
Boys
Girls
10%
9%
11%
7%
5%
9%
15%
13%
18%
Mid Back Pain
All children
Boys
Girls
20%
22%
19%
13%
13%
13%
28%
22%
32%
Low Back Pain
All children
Boys
Girls
33%
32%
34%
28%
26%
30%
48%
39%
54%

The Abstract:

BACKGROUND:   It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low back pain (LBP), mid back pain (MBP), neck pain (NP), and care-seeking because of BP at three different ages (9, 13 and 15 years) and how the BP reporting tracks over these age groups over three consecutive surveys.

METHODS:   A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from the years of 1997 till 2005, collecting interview data from children who were sampled to be representative of Danish schoolchildren. BP was defined overall and specifically in the three spinal regions as having reported pain within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of BP reporting over time are presented as percentages.

RESULTS:   Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys and 34% participated in all three. The prevalence estimates for children at the ages of 9, 13, and 15, respectively, were for BP 33%, 28%, and 48%; for LBP 4%, 22%, and 36%; for MBP 20%, 13%, and 35%; and for NP 10%, 7%, and 15%. Seeking care for BP increased from 6% and 8% at the two youngest ages to 34% at the oldest. Only 7% of the children who participated in all three surveys reported BP each time and 30% of these always reported no pain. The patterns of development differed for the three spinal regions and between genders. Status at the previous survey predicted status at the next survey, so that those who had pain before were more likely to report pain again and vice versa. This was most pronounced for care-seeking.

CONCLUSION:   It was confirmed that BP starts early in life, but the patterns of onset and development over time vary for different parts of the spine and between genders. Because of these differences, it is recommended to report on BP in youngsters separately for the three spinal regions, and to differentiate in the analyses between the genders and age groups. Although only a small minority reported BP at two or all three surveys, tracking of BP (particularly NP) and care seeking was noted from one survey to the other. On the positive side, individuals without BP at a previous survey were likely to remain pain free at the subsequent survey.


Background

It is well known that back pain (BP) is a common and costly problem in the general population. Previously, BP in children was considered rare and a sign of a potentially serious disorder [1,2]. Today, according to a recent systematic review, the general opinion would be that BP, including low back pain (LBP), mid back pain (MBP) and neck pain (NP), starts already early in life to accelerate during the early teens up till early adulthood [3] and that its presence in young age is a precursor for BP also in adulthood [4]. In order to approach the issues of prevention and treatment it is helpful to understand the extent and course of a disease, particularly around the time of its onset and that picture is, presently, far from clear. Methodological and definition issues can partly explain this [3]. However, this is also a question of the study objectives and design. It is therefore not surprising that the estimates from various studies vary and that often they make no sense. Also, there appears to be no credible data on the true incidence for each spinal region in young people.

(more…)

Predictors of Outcome in Neck Pain Patients Undergoing Chiropractic Care: Comparison of Acute and Chronic Patients

By |August 25, 2012|Chiropractic Care, Chronic Pain, Neck Pain, Radiculopathy, Spinal Manipulation|

Predictors of Outcome in Neck Pain Patients Undergoing Chiropractic Care: Comparison of Acute and Chronic Patients

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012 (Aug 24); 20 (1): 27

Cynthia K Peterson, Jennifer Bolton, B. Kim Humphreys

University of Zürich and Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland


Background   Neck pain is a common complaint in patients presenting for chiropractic treatment. The few studies on predictors for improvement in patients while undergoing treatment identify duration of symptoms, neck stiffness and number of previous episodes as the strong predictor variables. The purpose of this study is to continue the research for predictors of a positive outcome in neck pain patients undergoing chiropractic treatment.

Methods   Acute (< 4 weeks) (n = 274) and chronic (> 3 months) (n = 255) neck pain patients with no chiropractic or manual therapy in the prior 3 months were included. Patients completed the numerical pain rating scale (NRS) and Bournemouth questionnaire (BQ) at baseline prior to treatment. At 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after start of treatment the NRS and BQ were completed along with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale. Demographic information was provided by the clinician. Improvement at each of the follow up points was categorized using the PGIC. Multivariate regression analyses were done to determine significant independent predictors of improvement.

Results   Baseline mean neck pain and total disability scores were significantly (p < 0.001and p < 0.008 respectively) higher in acute patients. Both groups reported significant improvement at all data collection time points, but was significantly larger for acute patients. The PGIC score at 1 week (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.13-9.92) and the baseline to 1 month BQ total change score (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03-1.11) were identified as independent predictors of improvement at 3 months for acute patients. Chronic patients who reported improvement on the PGIC at 1 month were more likely to be improved at 3 months (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 2.76-13.69). The presence of cervical radiculopathy or dizziness was not predictive of a negative outcome in these patients. CONCLUSIONS:   The most consistent predictor of clinically relevant improvement at both 1 and 3 months after the start of chiropractic treatment for both acute and chronic patients is if they report improvement early in the course of treatment. The co-existence of either radiculopathy or dizziness however do not imply poorer prognosis in these patients.


There are more articles like this @ our:

Chronic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Page

and the

A Clinical Model for the Diagnosis and Management Page

From the FULL TEXT Article:

Background

Patients suffering from neck pain are second only to low back pain patients in terms of the frequency of presentation for chiropractic treatment [1-4]. For many of these patients the precise diagnosis is difficult to ascertain and thus becomes labeled ‘non-specific’ neck pain or neck pain from mechanical dysfunction [1,3-5]. Research evidence has yet to determine with clarity whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or mobilization of the neck is the superior treatment for these patients [1-9] although it appears that both of these treatments have better outcomes when combined with exercise [5,10]. (more…)

Neck and Back Pain in Children: Prevalence and Progression Over Time

By |June 19, 2012|Low Back Pain, Neck Pain, Pediatrics|

Neck and Back Pain in Children:
Prevalence and Progression Over Time

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011 (May 16); 12: 98 ~ FULL TEXT

Per Kjaer, Niels Wedderkopp, Lars Korsholm, and
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde

Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics,
Part of Clinical Locomotion Network,
University of Southern Denmark,
Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense, Denmark.


The following article appears to be the first study to track and review the progression of back pain in the same group of children, over a prolonged period, to see how (or if) it is a contributor to those same complains in adulthood.

Of particular interest is Table 2, because it breaks down and tracks complaints of either neck, mid back, or low back pain in the same group of children at 3 different time periods: ages 9, 13 and 15 years old.

Table 2: Prevalence rates of different types of back pain in a cohort of Danish children/ adolescents surveyed at three time points

  Age Group     Age 9     Age 13     Age 15  
Neck Pain
All children

Boys

Girls

10%

9%

11%
7%

5%

9%
15%

13%

18%
Mid Back Pain
All children

Boys

Girls

20%

22%

19%
13%

13%

13%
28%

22%

32%
Low Back Pain
All children

Boys

Girls

33%

32%

34%
28%

26%

30%
48%

39%

54%


The Abstract and Full Text Article: (more…)