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Older Adults Who Use Vitamin/Mineral Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Nutrient Intake Adequacy and Dietary Attitudes

By |August 1, 2017|Nutrient Deficiency, Nutrition|

Older Adults Who Use Vitamin/Mineral Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Nutrient Intake Adequacy and Dietary Attitudes

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 (Aug); 107 (8): 1322–1332

Rhonda S. Sebastian, MA, Linda E. Cleveland, MS, RD,
Joseph D. Goldman, MA, Alanna J. Moshfegh, MS, RD

US Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service,
Food Surveys Research Group,
Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

OBJECTIVE:   To measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin/mineral supplement users and nonusers aged 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of supplement practices in compensating for dietary deficits, and identify predictors of supplement use.

DESIGN:   Analyses of two 24-hour recalls, demographic variables, and attitude questions collected during the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey in 1994 to 1996. Data were weighted to be representative of older Americans.

SUBJECTS:   Four thousand three hundred eighty-four adults aged 51 years and older (1,777 daily supplement users, 428 infrequent users, and 2,179 nonusers) residing in households in the United States.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES:   Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cutpoint method was applied to determine the proportion of older adults not meeting requirements before and after accounting for nutrient intake from supplements. Student t tests were used to assess differences between users and nonusers. Logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic and attitudinal predictors of supplement use.

RESULTS:   For one or more of the sex-age groups studied, a significantly smaller proportion of supplement users than nonusers had intakes from food alone below the EAR for vitamins A, B-6, and C; folate; zinc; and magnesium. Even so, less than 50% of both users and nonusers met the EAR for folate, vitamin E, and magnesium from food sources alone. Overall, supplements improved the nutrient intake of older adults. After accounting for the contribution of supplements, 80% or more of users met the EAR for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, C, and E; folate; iron; and zinc, but not magnesium. However, some supplement users, particularly men, exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for iron and zinc and a small percentage of women exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin A. Significant sociodemographic factors related to supplement use for older men were age group, metropolitan area, and educational status. Race, region, smoking status, and vegetarian status were significant factors for women. Attitude about the importance of following a healthful diet was a consistent predictor of supplement use for both men and women.

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Nutrition Section


Fish-oil Supplementation Enhances the Effects of Strength Training in Elderly Women

By |July 12, 2017|Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acids|

Fish-oil Supplementation Enhances the Effects of Strength Training in Elderly Women

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 (Feb); 95 (2): 428–436

Cintia LN Rodacki, André LF Rodacki,
Gleber Pereira, Katya Naliwaiko,

Paraná Federal University,
Setor de Ciências Biológicas,
Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

BACKGROUND:   Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE:   The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women.

DESIGN:   Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period.

RESULTS:   No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group.

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Food Groups and Risk of All-cause Mortality

By |June 6, 2017|Nutrition|

Food Groups and Risk of All-cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 (Jun); 105 (6): 1462-1473

Lukas Schwingshackl, Carolina Schwedhelm,
Georg Hoffmann, Anna-Maria Lampousi et al.

German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke,
Nuthetal, Germany;

Background:   Suboptimal diet is one of the most important factors in preventing early death and disability worldwide.

Objective:   The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with risk of all-cause mortality.

Design:   We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between these 12 food groups and risk of all-cause mortality. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated with the use of a random effects model for high-intake compared with low-intake categories, as well as for linear and nonlinear relations. Moreover, the risk reduction potential of foods was calculated by multiplying the RR by optimal intake values (serving category with the strongest association) for risk-reducing foods or risk-increasing foods, respectively.

Results:   With increasing intake (for each daily serving) of

whole grains   (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95),
vegetables   (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.98),
fruits   (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97),
nuts   (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.84), and
fish   (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98)

the risk of all-cause mortality decreased;

higher intake of

red meat   (RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and
processed meat   (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.36)

was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in a linear dose-response meta-analysis.

A clear indication of nonlinearity was seen for the relations between vegetables, fruits, nuts, and dairy and all-cause mortality. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods results in a 56% reduction of all-cause mortality, whereas consumption of risk-increasing foods is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality.

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Nutrition Section


Combining Pain Therapy with Lifestyle: The Role of Personalized Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements

By |December 29, 2016|Nutrition, Pain Relief|

Combining Pain Therapy with Lifestyle: The Role of Personalized Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements According to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny Approach

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   J Pain Res. 2016 (Dec 8); 9: 1179–1189 ~ FULL TEXT

Manuela De Gregori, Carolina Muscoli, et al

Pain Therapy Service,
Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo,
Pavia, Italy

Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: “FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain”, held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on “Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology”.

The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising.

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Vitamins and Nutrients as Primary Treatments
in Experimental Brain Injury

By |January 4, 2016|Nutrition, Traumatic Brain Injury|

Vitamins and Nutrients as Primary Treatments in Experimental Brain Injury: Clinical Implications for Nutraceutical Therapies

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Brain Res. 2015 (Dec 23) [Epub ahead of print]

Cole Vonder Haara, Todd C. Petersonb,
Kris M. Martensa, Michael R. Hoanec

Restorative Neuroscience Laboratory
Department of Psychology,
Life Science II, MC 6502
Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale, IL 62901, USA

With the numerous failures of pharmaceuticals to treat traumatic brain injury in humans, more researchers have become interested in combination therapies. This is largely due to the multimodal nature of damage from injury, which causes excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, edema, neuroinflammation and cell death. Polydrug treatments have the potential to target multiple aspects of the secondary injury cascade, while many previous therapies focused on one particular aspect. Of specific note are vitamins, minerals and nutrients that can be utilized to supplement other therapies. Many of these have low toxicity, are already FDA approved and have minimal interactions with other drugs, making them attractive targets for therapeutics.

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Nutrition Section


Mediterranean Diet and Telomere Length in Nurses’ Health Study

By |March 8, 2015|Nutrient Deficiency, Nutrition|

Mediterranean Diet and Telomere Length in Nurses’ Health Study: Population Based Cohort Study

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   British Medical Journal 2014 (Dec 2) ~ FULL TEXT

Marta Crous-Bou, Teresa T Fung, Jennifer Prescott,
Bettina Julin, Mengmeng Du, Qi Sun, Kathryn M Rexrode,
Frank B Hu, Immaculata De Vivo

Channing Division of Network Medicine,
Department of Medicine,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
and Harvard Medical School,
Boston, MA 02115, USA

OBJECTIVE:   To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging.

DESIGN:   Population based cohort study.

SETTING:   Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121,700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32,825 women provided blood samples.

PARTICIPANTS:   4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:   Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data.

RESULTS:   Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were -0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend = 0.004).

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