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Spinal Manipulative Therapy Has an Immediate Effect on Thermal Pain Sensitivity in People With Low Back Pain

By |May 1, 2017|Pain Relief, Spinal Manipulation, Thermal Pain Sensitivity|

Spinal Manipulative Therapy Has an Immediate Effect on Thermal Pain Sensitivity in People With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Phys Ther. 2009 (Dec); 89 (12): 1292–1303

Parvaneh Mohammadian, PhD, Antonio Gonsalves, DC,
Chris Tsai, DC, Thomas Hummel, MD, and
Thomas Carpenter, DC

Department of Physical Therapy,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32610-0154, USA.


BACKGROUND:   Current evidence suggests that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is effective in the treatment of people with low back pain (LBP); however, the corresponding mechanisms are unknown. Hypoalgesia is associated with SMT and is suggestive of specific mechanisms.

OBJECTIVE:   The primary purpose of this study was to assess the immediate effects of SMT on thermal pain perception in people with LBP. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the resulting hypoalgesia was a local effect and whether psychological influences were associated with changes in pain perception.

DESIGN:   This study was a randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:   A sample of convenience was recruited from community and outpatient clinics.

PARTICIPANTS:   Thirty-six people (10 men, 26 women) currently experiencing LBP participated in the study. The average age of the participants was 32.39 (SD=12.63) years, and the average duration of LBP was 221.79 (SD=365.37) weeks.

INTERVENTION AND MEASUREMENTS:   Baseline demographic and psychological measurements were obtained, followed by quantitative sensory testing to assess temporal summation and Adelta fiber-mediated pain perception. Next, participants were randomly assigned to ride a stationary bicycle, perform low back extension exercises, or receive SMT. Finally, the same quantitative sensory testing protocol was reassessed to determine the immediate effects of each intervention on thermal pain sensitivity.

RESULTS:   Hypoalgesia to A-delta fiber-mediated pain perception was not observed. Group-dependent hypoalgesia of temporal summation specific to the lumbar innervated region was observed. Pair-wise comparisons indicated significant hypoalgesia in participants who received SMT, but not in those who rode a stationary bicycle or performed low back extension exercises. Psychological factors did not significantly correlate with changes in temporal summation in participants who received SMT.

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Subluxation Neurology Section

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Areas of Capsaicin-Induced Secondary Hyperalgesia and Allodynia Are Reduced by a Single Chiropractic Adjustment

By |April 29, 2017|Chiropractic Care, Pain Relief|

Areas of Capsaicin-Induced Secondary Hyperalgesia and Allodynia Are Reduced by a Single Chiropractic Adjustment: A Preliminary Study

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004 (Jul); 27 (6): 381–387

Parvaneh Mohammadian, PhD, Antonio Gonsalves, DC,
Chris Tsai, DC Thomas Hummel, MD, Thomas Carpenter, DC

School of Medicine,
University of California,
Los Angeles, Calif 90024, USA.


INTRODUCTION:   The aim of the study was to investigate the hypoalgesic effects of a single spinal manipulation treatment on acute inflammatory reactions and pain induced by cutaneous application of capsaicin.

METHODS:   Twenty healthy subjects participated in the experiment, which consisted of 2 sessions. In both sessions, following control measurements, topical capsaicin was applied to the right or left forearm to induce cutaneous inflammatory reactions. The cream was removed after 20 minutes. Then subjects received either spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) or “nonspinal manipulation treatment” (N-SMT), respectively. In control as well as pretreatment and posttreatment intervals, the following tests were performed: measurement of the areas of mechanical hyperalgesia and stroking allodynia, assessment of spontaneous pain, and measurement of blood flow.

RESULTS:   The results confirmed that topical capsaicin induced inflammatory reactions based on occurrence of hyperalgesia and allodynia, augmented pain perception, and increased blood flow following capsaicin application compared with the control session. When compared with N-SMT, spontaneous pain was rated significantly lower post-SMT (P < .014). In addition, areas of both secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia decreased after SMT (hyperalgesia: P <.007; allodynia: P <.003). However, there was no significant treatment effect for local blood flow.

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Subluxation Neurology Section

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The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Deep Experimental Muscle Pain in Healthy Volunteers

By |February 23, 2017|Chiropractic Research, Pain Relief|

The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Deep Experimental Muscle Pain in Healthy Volunteers

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2015 (Sep 7);   23:   25

Søren O’Neill, Øystein Ødegaard-Olsen and Beate Søvde

Institute of Regional Health Research,
University of Southern Denmark,
Campusvej 55, Odense, 5230 DK Denmark ;

Spine Centre of Southern Denmark,
Lillebælt Hospital, Østre Hougvej 55,
Middelfart, 5500 DK Denmark


BACKGROUND:   High-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation is commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain syndromes. The mechanisms by which HVLA-manipulation might reduce spinal pain are not well understood, but often assumed to relate to the reduction of biomechanical dysfunction. It is also possible however, that HVLA-manipulation involves a segmental or generalized inhibitory effect on nociception, irrespective of biomechanical function. In the current study it was investigated whether a local analgesic effect of HVLA-manipulation on deep muscle pain could be detected, in healthy individuals.

METHODS AND MATERIALS:   Local, para-spinal muscle pain was induced by injection of 0.5 ml sterile, hyper-tonic saline on two separate occasions 1 week apart. Immediately following the injection, treatment was administered as either a) HVLA-manipulation or b) placebo treatment, in a randomized cross-over design. Both interventions were conducted by an experienced chiropractor with minimum 6 years of clinical experience. Participants and the researcher collecting data were blinded to the treatment allocation. Pain scores following saline injection were measured by computerized visual analogue pain scale (VAS) (0-100 VAS, 1 Hz) and summarized as a) Pain duration, b) Maximum VAS, c) Time to maximum VAS and d) Summarized VAS (area under the curve). Data analysis was performed as two-way analysis of variance with treatment allocation and session number as explanatory variables.

RESULTS:   Twenty-nine healthy adults (mean age 24.5 years) participated, 13 women and 16 men. Complete data was available for 28 participants. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant difference between active and placebo manipulation on any of the four pain measures.

There are more articles like this @ our:

Chiropractic and Spinal Pain Page and the:

Subluxation Neurology Section

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Combining Pain Therapy with Lifestyle: The Role of Personalized Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements

By |December 29, 2016|Nutrition, Pain Relief|

Combining Pain Therapy with Lifestyle: The Role of Personalized Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements According to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny Approach

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Pain Res. 2016 (Dec 8); 9: 1179–1189 ~ FULL TEXT

Manuela De Gregori, Carolina Muscoli, et al

Pain Therapy Service,
Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo,
Pavia, Italy


Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: “FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain”, held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on “Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology”.

The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising.

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Chiropractic and Pain Management Page and the:

Nutrition Section

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On The Origin of Atraumatic Neuromusculoskeletal Pain

By |May 3, 2016|Pain Relief|

On The Origin of Atraumatic Neuromusculoskeletal Pain

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Chiropractic J of Australia 2016 (Jan); 44 (1): 1–8

Joe Evans, PhD

CEO, Sense Technology Inc.
1052 Corporate Lane,
Export, PA


The purpose of this study was to examine the possible origins of non-specific or atraumatic back pain by applying the Gate Theory of pain and current physiologic concepts. I present a theory that accounts for the initiation and potential consequences of neuromusculoskeletal pain incorporating failure of the mechanism of muscle relaxation and resulting in pain and compromise of the lymphatic system. The theory provides an alternative to current theories and hypotheses of the cause and consequences of neuromusculoskeletal pain.

Keywords:   Pain; Muscular System; Muscle Relaxation


From the FULL TEXT Article:

INTRODUCTION

The incidence of low back and other neuromusculoskeletal pain continues to increase, with low back pain being the leading cause of disability in the world. [1, 2] In addition to the loss of quality of life for those experiencing musculoskeletal pain, the cost to both patients and society is significant and increasing:

  • The annual cost of chronic pain in the United States, including healthcare expenses (direct medical costs), lost income, and lost productivity, is estimated to be $635 billion. This is significantly higher than the estimated annual costs in 2010, dollars of heart disease ($309 billion), cancer ($243 billion), and diabetes ($188 billion).
  • Total estimated medical costs associated with back and neck pain, two of the commonest presentations of patients with chronic pain, increased by 65% between 1997 and 2005, to about $86 billion a year. Overall, pharmaceutical expenditures related to back and neck pain increased by 188% between 1997 and 2005, but costs associated with prescription narcotics rose by an astounding 423%.

    There are more articles like this @ our:

    Chiropractic and Pain Page   and the:

    What is the Chiropractic Subluxation Page

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Exploring the Definition of Acute Low Back Pain

By |May 2, 2016|Low Back Pain, Pain Relief|

Exploring the Definition of Acute Low Back Pain: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study Comparing Outcomes of Chiropractic Patients With 0-2, 2-4, and 4-12 Weeks of Symptoms

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 (Mar); 39 (3): 141–149

Karin E. Mantel, MChiroMed,
Cynthia K. Peterson, RN, DC, MMedEd, and
B. Kim Humphreys, DC, PhD

Chiropractic Medicine Doctoral Student,
Chiropractic Medicine Department,
Faculty of Medicine,
University of Zürich, Switzerland.


OBJECTIVE:   The purpose of this study was to compare improvement rates in patients with low back pain (LBP) undergoing chiropractic treatment with 0-2 weeks vs 2-4 and 4-12 weeks of symptoms.

METHODS:   This was a prospective cohort outcome study with 1-year follow-up including adult acute (symptoms 0-4 weeks) LBP patients. The numerical rating scale for pain (NRS) and Oswestry questionnaire were completed at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after starting treatment. The Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale was completed at all follow-up time points. At 6 months and 1 year, NRS and PGIC data were collected. The proportion of patients reporting relevant “improvement” (PGIC scale) was compared between patients having 0-2 and 2-4 weeks of symptoms using the χ2 test at all data collection time points. The unpaired t test compared NRS and Oswestry change scores between these 2 groups.

RESULTS:   Patients with 0-2 weeks of symptoms were significantly more likely to “improve” at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months compared with those with 2-4 weeks of symptoms (P < .015). Patients with 0-2 weeks of symptoms reported significantly higher NRS and Oswestry change scores at all data collection time points. Outcomes for patients with 2-4 weeks of symptoms were similar to patients having 4-12 weeks of symptoms.

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Low Back Pain and Chiropractic Page

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