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Function in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy or Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders Compared With Healthy Volunteers

By |June 5, 2014|Rehabilitation, Whiplash|

Function in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy or Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders Compared With Healthy Volunteers

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2014 (May);   37 (4):   211–218

Anneli Peolsson, PhD, Maria Landén Ludvigsson, MSc, PT, Johanna Wibault, MSc, PT, Åsa Dedering, PhD, PT, Gunnel Peterson, MSc, PT

Anneli Peolsson, Associate Professor, PhD, PT,
Department of Medical and Health Sciences,
Physiotherapy, Hälsans hus plan 12, Campus US,
Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden


Objective   The purposes of this study were to examine whether any differences in function and health exist between patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) due to disk disease scheduled for surgery and patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and to compare measures of patients’ physical function with those obtained from healthy volunteers.

Methods   This is a cross-sectional study of patients with CR (n = 198) and patients with chronic WAD (n = 215). Patient data were compared with raw data previously obtained from healthy people. Physical measures included cervical active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand grip strength. Self-rated measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), neck disability (Neck Disability Index), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier).

Results   Patient groups exhibited significantly lower performance than the healthy group in all physical measures (P < .0005) except for neck muscle endurance in flexion for women (P > .09). There was a general trend toward worse results in the CR group than the WAD group, with significant differences in neck active range of motion, left hand strength for women, pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier, and Self-Efficacy Scale (P < .0001).

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The Whiplash and Chiropractic Page and the:

Radiculopathy and Chiropractic Page

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Clinical Biomechanics: Scoliosis

By |May 8, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Rehabilitation, Scoliosis|

Clinical Biomechanics: Scoliosis

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 13 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Clinical Biomechanics:
Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 13: Scoliosis

In traditional medicine, scoliosis is commonly ignored until gross cosmetic effects or signs of structural destruction are witnessed. In chiropractic, however, even minor degrees of distortion should be considered at the time of spinal analysis because of their subtle biomechanical and neurologic consequences, and to halt potential progression at an early stage. To give a better appreciation of these points, this chapter describes the general structural, examination, and biomechanical concerns that should be considered, along with the highlights of conservative therapy.


     GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


The Spinal Curves   [1-9]

A curved column has increased resistance to compression forces. This is just as true in the spine, as for a rib or long bone. Most authorities consider the spine to have four major curves: anteriorly convex curves at the cervical and lumbar areas and, anteriorly concave curves at the thoracic and sacral levels. Cailliet considers the coccyx a curve, but this curve is usually considered an extension of the sacral curve. A few authorities consider the atlanto-occipital junction as a separate anteriorly convex curve. Regardless, the spinal curves offer the vertebral column increased inflexibility and shock-absorbing capability while still maintaining an adequate degree of stiffness and stability between vertebral segments (Fig. 13.1).

      Structural vs Functional Curves

The adult thoracic and sacral anteriorly concave curves are firm structural arcs as the result of their vertebral bodies being shorter anteriorly than posteriorly. The normal kyphosis of the adult thoracic and sacral curves is quite similar to that of the fetal spine. This is not true for the anteriorly convex cervical and lumbar regions where the curves are essentially the result of their soft tissue wedge-shaped IVDs. It is for this reason that the cervical and lumbar curves readily flatten in the supine position, while the thoracic kyphosis reduces only a slight amount.

There is a clinical correlation of disc wedging to disc disease. Most disc lesions are found in the cervical and lumbar regions where the greatest degree of physiologic wedging occurs. This appears to be true in both hyperlordosis and an exceptionally flat cervical or lumbar curve.

      Effect of Bipedism

An adult discless spine would resemble that of the newborn. Since animals that walk on four legs and infants prior to assuming the erect position do not have the physiologic curves of the erect adult, it can be assumed that these curves are the result of bipedism. In the erect position, the lower lumbar area is especially subjected to considerable shearing stress. [10, 11]

      Overall Balance

Although the spine is often considered as the central pillar of the body, this is only true when the spine is viewed from the anterior or posterior aspect. When viewed laterally, the spine lies distinctly posterior to the thoracic body mass essentially because of the space-occupying heart (Fig. 13.2), It lies much more centrally in the cervical and lumbar regions. An abundance of body mass also lies anterior to the midline in the head, which must be held by erector and check ligament strength if a thoracic “hump” or a flattened cervical curve are to be avoided.

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Sports Management: Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

By |April 23, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Chiropractic Technique, Clinical Decision-making, Education, Gait Analysis, Rehabilitation, Sports Management|

Sports Management:
Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 27 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Chiropractic Management of Sports and Recreational Injuries”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 27:   Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The lower leg, ankle, and foot work as a functional unit. Total body weight above is transmitted to the leg, ankle hinge, and foot in the upright position, and this force is greatly multiplied in locomotion. Thus the ankle and foot are uniquely affected by trauma and static deformities infrequently seen in other areas of the body.


     Injuries of the Leg


The most common injuries in this area are bruises, muscle strains, tendon lesions, postural stress, anterior and posterior compression syndromes, and tibia and fibula fractures. Bruises of the lower leg are less frequent than those of the thigh or knee, but the incidence of intrinsic strain, sprain, and stress fractures are much greater.

A continual program of running and jogging is typical of most sports. The result is often strengthening of the antigravity muscles at the expense of the gravity muscles — producing a dynamic imbalance unless both gravity and antigravity muscles are developed simultaneously. An anatomic or physiologic short leg as little as an eighth of an inch can affect a stride and produce an overstrain in long-distance track events.

Bruises and Contusions

The most common bruise of the lower extremity is that of the shin where disability may be great as the poorly protected tibial periosteum is usually involved. Skin splits in this area can be most difficult to heal. Signs of suppuration indicate referral to guard against periostitis and osteomyelitis.

Management.   Treat as any skin-bone bruise with cold packs and antibacterial procedures, and shield the area with padding during competitive activity. When long socks are worn, the incidence of shinbone injuries is reduced. An old but effective protective method in professional football that does not add weight is to place four or five sheets of slick magazine pages around the shin that are secured by a cotton sock which is covered by the conventional sock. A blow to the shin is reduced to about a third of its force as the paper slips laterally on impact.

      GASTROCNEMIUS CONTUSION

This is a common and most debilitating injury in contact sports. It is characterized by severe calf tenderness, abnormal muscle firmness of the engorged muscle, and inability to raise the heel during weight bearing.

Management.   Treat with cold packs, compression, and elevation for 24 hr. Follow with mild heat and contrast baths. Massage is contraindicated as it might disturb muscle repair. The danger of ossification is less in the calf than in the thigh, but management must incorporate precautions against adhesions.

      TRAUMATIC PHLEBITIS

Contusion to the greater saphenous vein may lead to rupture resulting in extensive swelling, ecchymosis, redness and other signs of local phlebitis. Tenderness will be found along the course of the vascular channel. During treatment, referral should be made upon the first signs of thrombosis.

Management.   Management is by rest, cold, compression, and elevation for at least 24 hr. Later, progressive ambulation, mild heat, and contrast baths should be utilized. Progressive exercises may begin in 4-6 days. When competitive activity is resumed, the area should be provided extra protection.

      NERVE CONTUSIONS (more…)

Sports Management: Shoulder Girdle Injuries

By |April 20, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Education, Orthopedic Tests, Rehabilitation, Shoulder Girdle Injuries, Sports Management|

Sports Management:
Shoulder Girdle Injuries

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 22 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Chiropractic Management of Sports and Recreational Injuries”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 22:   Shoulder Girdle Injuries

This chapter concerns injuries of and about the scapula, clavicle, and shoulder. In sports, the shoulder girdle is a common site of minor injury and a not infrequent site of serious disability. It is second only to the knee as a chronic site of prolonged disability. Upper limb injuries amount to about 20% of sport-related injuries. They can be highly debilitating, require considerable lost field time, and can easily ruin a promising sports career.


     Introduction


The versatile shoulder girdle consists of the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral joints, and the scapulothoracic articulation. These allow, as a whole, universal mobility by way of a shallow glenoid fossa, the joint capsule, and the suspension muscles and ligaments. The shoulder, a ball-and-socket joint, is freely movable and lacks a close connection between its articular surfaces.

The regional anatomy offers little to resist violent shoulder depression, and the shoulder tip itself has little protection from trauma. The length of the arm presents a long lever with a large head within a relatively small joint. This allows a great range of motion with little stability. The stability of the shoulder is derived entirely from its surrounding soft tissues.

History and Initial Care

A careful history recording the mechanism of trauma and the position of the limb during injury, careful inspection and palpation of the entire region, muscle and range-of-motion tests, and other standard neurologic-orthopedic tests will often arrive at an accurate diagnosis without the necessity of x-ray exposure. Forceful manipulations should always be reserved for late in the examination to evaluate contraindications.

Contusions, strains, sprains, bursitis, and neurologic deficits must be alertly recognized and treated. Fractures and dislocations, obviously, take precedence over soft-tissue injuries with the exception of severe bleeding. Always check for bony crepitus, fracture line tenderness and swelling, angulation and deformity. Because the shoulder readily “freezes” after injury, treatment must strive to maintain motion as soon as possible without encouraging recurring problems. The key to avoiding prolonged disability is early recognition and early mobilization.

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Shoulder Girdle Page

      Posttraumatic Assessment (more…)

Orthopedic and Neurologic Procedures in Chiropractic

By |November 15, 2012|Chiropractic Care, Diagnosis, Neurology, Orthopedic Tests, Rehabilitation|

Orthopedic and Neurologic Procedures in Chiropractic

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 3 from RC’s best-selling book:
“Basic Chiropractic Procedural Manual”

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 3: Orthopedic and Neurologic Procedures in Chiropractic

This chapter presents the general diagnostic methods currently used in differential diagnosis of selected orthopedic and neurologic conditions.


     SELECTED NEUROLOGIC PROBLEMS


Overview

The typical patient presents the challenge of differential diagnosis of a number of neurologic conditions. These range from a variety of peripheral neuritides that may be completely reversible to serious degenerations of the central nervous system.

The tendency of the geriatric patient to develop neurologic problems is often related to the aging process: loss of tissue elasticity, particularly that of the musculoskeletal system. This is manifested by greater rigidity of the spinal column with the appearance of fixation subluxations. These, together with dehydration and subsequent thinning of the intervertebral discs, predispose to radiculitis, neuritis, and vasomotor disturbances and metabolic effects on the cord and brain. The neurologic disturbances can be superimposed on already degenerating arteriosclerotic vessels and alter metabolism of the gastrointestinal and other systems, which may cause serious problems unless recognized early and prompt corrective measures are administered.

Types of Neuritides

      Peripheral Neuritis

Peripheral neuritis is a general peripheral neuritis such as that which may be present in such disorders as diabetes, anemia, and vitamin deficiency. Diminution of all sensation will be noted, with proprioception affected most. A stocking distribution with an ill-defined border is commonly witnessed. Glove distribution may appear later, along with paresthesias in the distal areas of sensory distribution. The clinical picture does not conform to either dermatome or nerve patterns of distribution. The cause for this is unknown.

      Local Neuritis (more…)

Conservative Management of a 31 Year Old Male With Left Sided Low Back and Leg Pain: A Case Report

By |November 11, 2012|Chiropractic Care, McKenzie, Rehabilitation, Spinal Manipulation|

Conservative Management of a 31 Year Old Male With Left Sided Low Back and Leg Pain: A Case Report

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012 (Sep);   56 (3):   225-232

Emily R. Howell, BPHE(Hons), DC, FCCPOR(C)

Ashbridge’s Health Centre,
1522 Queen St. East,
Toronto, ON M4L 1E3.
dremilyhowell@hotmail.com


OBJECTIVE:   This case study reported the conservative management of a patient presenting with left sided low back and leg pain diagnosed as a left sided L5-S1 disc prolapse/herniation.

CLINICAL FEATURES:   A 31-year-old male recreational worker presented with left sided low back and leg pain for the previous 3-4 months that was exacerbated by prolonged sitting.

INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME:   The plan of management included interferential current, soft tissue trigger point and myofascial therapy, lateral recumbent manual low velocity, low amplitude traction mobilizations and pelvic blocking as necessary. Home care included heat, icing, neural mobilizations, repeated extension exercises, stretching, core muscle strengthening, as well as the avoidance of prolonged sitting and using a low back support in his work chair. The patient responded well after the first visit and his leg and back pain were almost completely resolved by the third visit.

SUMMARY:   Conservative chiropractic care appears to reduce pain and improve mobility in this case of a L5-S1 disc herniation. Active rehabilitative treatment strategies are recommended before surgical referral.

Recent Studies Have Also Shown That:

Back Surgery Fails 74% of the Time


From the FULL TEXT Article

Introduction:

Low back pain has been reported as the chief complaint for 23.6% of patients presenting to chiropractic offices. [1]   Disc herniations that lead to nerve-root compromise account for less than 15% of chronic low back pain cases. [2]   Over 95% of lumbar disc herniations occur at L4–5 or L5-S1 levels, and only 2% of herniations require surgery, 4% have compression fractures, 0.7% have spinal malignant neoplasms, 0.3% have ankylosing spondylitis and 0.1% have spinal infections. [2, 3]

Leg pain is estimated to be found in 25–57% of all low back pain cases and accounts for large costs, disability, chronicity and severity. [4, 5, 6] Many conservative treatments have been shown to be effective in the management of this condition and are favorable to pursue before considering any surgical interventions, such as: modalities, soft tissue therapy, spinal manipulations or mobilizations, pelvic blocking, McKenzie/end-range loading exercises, lumbar stabilization exercises and neural mobilizations, patient education, reassurance, short-term use of acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. [2, 3, 7–24] The purpose of this case report is to describe the successful management of a patient with low back and leg pain.


Discussion:

There are more articles like this @ our:

Low Back Pain and Chiropractic Page and the:

Chiropractic and Sciatica Page

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