Estimated Effects of Treatments on Most Severe Pain and Average Pain Intensity in the Past Week and on Neck Disability Score From Baseline to Each Follow-Up Assessment, by Follow-Up Interval andTreatment Contrast: Results of Logistic Regression Analyses

Most Severe PainAverage PainNeck Disability
Follow-up IntervalTreatment ContrastRRa95% CIRRa95% CIRRa95% CI
0–2 weeksManip vs mobb1.020.72, 1.440.930.68, 1.270.710.48, 1.04
Heat vs no heatb1.601.16,, 1.641.240.89, 1.72
EMS vs no EMSb1.310.94, 1.811.000.73, 1.361.110.79, 1.56
0–6 weeksManip vs mobb1.020.81, 1.280.970.77,, 1.35
Heat vs no heatb1.070.85, 1.330.980.77,, 1.33
EMS vs no EMSb1.050.84, 1.321.040.83, 1.300.910.70, 1.19
0–3 monthsManip vs mobb0.910.74, 1.110.930.76, 1.130.990.79, 1.24
Heat vs no heatb0.970.80, 1.170.940.78, 1.140.900.71, 1.15
EMS vs no EMSb1.080.91, 1.280.980.81, 1.170.970.78, 1.22
0–6 monthsManip vs mobb1.000.81, 1.220.920.74, 1.150.850.66, 1.08
Heat vs no heatb1.120.93, 1.341.140.95, 1.371.140.94, 1.38
EMS vs no EMSb0.950.77, 1.170.900.73, 1.130.870.69, 1.10

Note. Effects are expressed as adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for manipulation (Manip) vs mobilization (mob), heat vs no heat, and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) vs no EMS. Reductions of 2 points or more (vs less than 2 points) on the pain scales and 5 points or more (vs less than 5 points) on the Neck Disability Index were used as dichotomous outcomes.

aEstimated effects adjusted for age, sex, neck-pain episode duration, frequency of neck pain, history of neck pain, baseline mental health score, and baseline value of the outcome measure.

bReference group.