Table 5.

Summary of Case Series and Case Reports.

CitationProviderPatientsInterventionsTreatment DurationOutcomesAdverse Events
Case series

 Collins, 2015DC2 (twins) age 7 moSMT and CM16 wkMother-report: reduced breastfeeding difficulties after 8 wk; decreased cranial asymmetry after 16 wkNot stated

 Lund, 2011DO2 (premature twins), age 15 wkSMT and CMDaily for 2 wk100% of feeding by nipple after 2 weeks; discharged from hospital at that timeNot stated

 Wall, 2006LC11 neonatesLactation consultationNo manual treatmentLower jaw asymmetry correlated with breastfeeding difficulties and also with suspected undiagnosed torticollisN/A

Case reports

 Drobbin, 2015DC1, age 4 wkSMT upper cervical spine and TMJ1 treatmentImmediate increase in neck ROM and successful breastfeedingNot stated

 Ferranti, 2016DC1, age 2 wkSMT and CMCMT 12, CM 10 treatmentsBreastfeeding difficulties resolved after 12 SMT; cranial deformation resolved after 10 CMNot stated

 Hubbard, 2014DC1, age 7 wkSMT and CM, probiotic, bile acid and vitamin D supplementationWeekly treatment for 1 moComplete resolution of breastfeeding difficultiesNot stated

 Lavigne, 2012DC, MD1, age 3 wkExamination indicated tongue-tie so patient referred for frenotomy; comanaged with SMT and CMNot statedReduced breastfeeding difficulties; improved mother’s nipple symptomsNot stated

 Summers, 2014DO1, age 15 days with Pierre Robin sequenceSMT, CM, soft tissue3 treatments at 3-wk intervalsSucking and breathing improved; weight gain and resolution of infant’s fatigue with breastfeedingNot stated

 Tutt, 2014DC1, age 8 mo, with torticollis and plagiocephalyInstrument-assisted SMT and manual CM; home stretching, light massage and passive ROM2 treatmentsNursing improved after first treatment by mother’s reportNot stated

 Williams, 2014DC1, age 6 wk, with congenital torticollis and plagiocephalyInstrument-assisted SMT and manual CM; SCM home stretching6 treatments over 3 wkFull cervical ROM and bilateral nursing after initial care, torticollis and plagiocephaly improved at 3 wkNot stated

DC = Doctor of Chiropractic;
DO = Doctor Osteopathy;
LC = lactation consultant;
MD = Doctor of Medicine;
N/A = not applicable;
SMT = spinal manipulative therapy;
CM = cranial manipulation;
ROM = range of motion;
SCM = sternocleidomastoid muscle.