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Table 1

Risk factors for occurrence and chronicity of low back painw10

Risk factorsOccurrenceChronicity
Individual Age; physical fitness; weakness of back and abdominal muscles; smoking Obesity; low educational level; high levels of pain and disability
Psychosocial Stress; anxiety; negative mood or emotions; poor cognitive functioning; pain behaviour Distress; depressive mood; somatisation
Occupational Manual material handling; bending and twisting; whole body vibration; job dissatisfaction; monotonous tasks; poor work relationships and social support Job dissatisfaction; unavailability of light duty on return to work; job requirement of lifting for three quarters of the day