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Table 3

Summary of key aspects of self-management support.

People self-manage most of the time
Enable them to do it well
Support patient autonomy
Act as a partner, be person-centred, avoid strong clinician control
Help patients develop self-efficacy
Provide and reinforce positive experiences
It is not only about back pain
Helping people to manage their pain in daily life supports their ability to maintain
good physical and mental health
Working with self-management requires the right setting
Trained clinicians, time for dialogue, and room for confidentiality are pre-requisites for self-management support
Clinical actions
Let patient value-based goals guide management
Focus on patient valued goals and shared decision making rather than on pain and dysfunction
Help patients make sense of their symptoms
Educate people about pain and pain behaviour and help them reframe negative perspectives
Teach skills to solve everyday problems
Give patients insights to help them overcome obstacles in everyday life
Provide tools for pain management
Focus on proactive pain behaviour techniques
Evaluate patient valued goals, action plans, and patients’ understanding of back pain
Move focus away from defining success as curing pain forever