Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 Oct 15.
Published in final edited form as:
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Oct 15; 44(20): 1456–1464.
doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003097

Table 1.

Model inputs: 6-week healthcare costs (2015$) productivity loss (2015$), and utilities used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), Mean (SE)

Health StatesBack-Related Healthcare Costs1Productivity Loss (from Absenteeism)2Utilities (Measure of Health-Related Quality of Life)3
No pain (no-to-low disability)$ --$3.76 ($2.66)0.806 (0.004)
Low-impact chronic pain (low pain, low activity limitations)$265.34 ($37.89)$31.90 ($14.75)0.763 (0.003)
Moderate-impact chronic pain (high pain, low activity limitations)$496.30 ($56.48)$47.55 ($9.61)0.704 (0.006)
High-impact chronic pain (substantial activity limitations)$689.91 ($54.38)$288.93 ($51.88)0.610 (0.007)

1Estimated from 2003–2015 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey data. Societal perspective (includes healthcare costs paid by patients).

2Patient self-report absenteeism from the Hurwitz et al, 2002, study. Valued using the Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 Employer Cost of Employee Compensation of $33.19 per hour.

3Utilities (SF-6D scores) from the Cassidy et al, 2005, study. These amounts are multiplied by 6/52 to generate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) added for each 6-week period.