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Figure 2

The possible mechanisms for omega-3 PUFA-mediated improvements in lipid and glucose metabolism. Dash lines indicate direct effects of EPA and DHA, and solid lines indicate secondary changes of metabolic state in lipid/glucose metabolism due to EPA and DHA. C: cholesterol; CM: chylomicron; CM-r: chylomicron remnant; DHA: docosahexaenoic acid; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid; FFA: free fatty acids; GLP-1: glucagon-like peptide 1; GPR: G protein-coupled receptor; HSL: hormone-sensitive lipase; HTGL: hepatic triglyceride lipase; IDL: intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); LDL: low-density lipoprotein; LPL: lipoprotein lipase; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; SREBP: sterol receptor element binding protein; TG: triglyceride; VLDL: very low-density lipoprotein.