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Table 4

The association between back muscle strength in extension and back pain in people younger than 19 years as reported in four studies

Ref numb.Name of first author/yearDesign of studyIndependent variableDependent variables listed in methodDependent variables reported in result sectionAssociation BMS in extension and back pain
[24]Balagué 1993CSBMS in NCumulative life prevalenceHistory of BPNone
Point prevalence
Localization of BP
[25]Balagué 2010CS and PBMS in NLBP medical attentionHistory of LBPNone
LBP consequences
Last episode
Parental history of BP
[26]Merati 2004CSBMS in NFrequency of BPHistory of BPNone
[27]Newcomer 1996PBMS in NLBP-everLBP-everNone
Age of first episodeAge of first episode
One-Year prevalenceOne-Year prevalence
LBP consequencesLBP consequences

CS: cross-sectionnal study

P: prospective study

BMS: back muscle strength (in extension)

N: Newton

BP: Back pain

LBP: Low back pain

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