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Table 5

The association between back muscle endurance in extension and back pain in people younger than 19 years as reported in four studies

Ref numb.Name of first author/aawyearDesign of studyIndependent variableDependent variables listed in methodDependent variables reported in result sectionAssociation Trunk Muscle Endurance in extension and BP
[28]Andersen 2006CSTime, obtained by Sorensen-Biering’s testLBP/MBP/NP < 1 month Age at 1st BP ConsequencesBP last monthYES, isometric endurance in the trunk muscle was negatively associated with back pain after adjusting for height and sex
Odds ratio: Three upper quartiles Vs lowest quartile
OR = 0.89 (95 % CI, 0.78-1.02)
OR = 0.78 (95 % CI, 0.68-0.89)
OR = 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.62-0.82)
[29]BernardRSTime, obtained by Sorensen-Biering’s testCLBP Subgroup within control group with LBPCLBPYES, the endurance in back extensors were less in the CLBP group
Sorensen Median(min:max) (25 s:3 min43)Control group 2 min31 (32 s:10 min2)CLBP 1 min45
[30]Perry 2009CSTime, obtained by Sorensen-Biering’s testBP pain (without NP) Ever Month Chronic DiagnosedBP pain Ever Month Chronic DiagnosedNO for male Yes, for girls. Increased likehood of diagnosed back pain was associated with reduced back endurance (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI, 1.16-3.60) and greater back endurance (OR = 2.00; 95 % CI, 1.10-3.60)
[31]Johnson 2009CSTime, obtained by Sorensen-Biering’s test of static muscular endurance1-year BP Present BP1-year BP Present BPYES Patient without LBP had a significant higher isometric holding time than those with history of previous LBP and those with present LBP.

CS: cross-sectionnal study

RS: retroprospective study

BMS: back muscle strength (in extension)

BP: Back pain

LBP: Low back pain

CLBP: Chronic low back pain

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