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Table 2

Candidate predictors.
Prognostic Factor GroupCharacteristicQuestion (Measure)
Sociodemographic factorsAgeWhat year were you born? (year)
GenderWhat is your gender? (male/female)
Education levelWhat is the level of the highest qualification you have completed? (school certificate/higher school certificate/trade certificate/diploma/advanced diploma/bachelor degree/postgraduate degree/other)
Current LBP characteristicsDuration of LBP episodeHow long ago did the present episode of low back pain begin? (<2 wk/2–3 wk/3–4 wk/4–6 wk)
Sudden onsetWas the onset of low back pain sudden? (yes/no)
Leg painDo you have leg pain? (yes/no)
Pain intensityHow much low back pain have you had during the past week? (none/very mild/mild/moderate/severe/very severe)
Interference of symptomsDuring the past week, how much did low back pain interfere with your normal work (including both work outside the home and housework)? (not at all/a little bit/moderately/quite a bit/extremely)
MedicationAre you currently taking medication for your low back pain? (yes/no)
Past LBP historyPrevious episodesHave you had a previous episode of low back pain? (yes/no)
SurgeryHave you previously had surgery for low back pain? (yes/no)
Psychological factorsControl of painBased on all the things you do to cope, or deal with your pain, on an average day, how much are you able to decrease it? (0–10 scale)
AnxietyHow tense or anxious have you felt in the past week? (0–10 scale)
DepressionHow much have you been bothered by feeling depressed in the past week? (0–10 scale)
Perceived riskIn your view, how large is the risk that your current pain may become persistent? (0–10 scale)
General healthSmokingDo you currently smoke? (yes/no)
ExerciseAt the commencement of this back pain episode were you exercising for at least 30 minutes three times per week or more (exercise includes walking briskly, cycling, digging, scrubbing floor on hands and knees, etc.)? (yes/no)
Perceived general healthIn general how would you say that your health is? (excellent/very good/good/fair/poor)
Work factorsSick leaveHave you previously taken sick leave due to low back pain? (yes/no)
Disability compensationIs your back pain compensable, e.g., through worker’s compensation or third party insurance? (yes/no)
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