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Table 1

Classification of outcome measures and Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group (CCBRG) levels of evidence for evaluating interventions [46, 47]
Outcome measuresValidated assessment tools
PainVisual Analogue Scale or Numerical Pain Rating Scale

Functional disabilitiesOswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire, Disability Rating Index, or Patient Specific Function Scale

Overall-health improvementShort form health survey

Quality of lifePatient Satisfaction with Care, Modified Zung Self-Rated Depression Score and State Trait Anxiety Inventory, return to work, sick leave, and medication use, adverse effects

Strength of evidenceConditions description

StrongConsistent findings from multiple ‘high quality trials’ = level A

ModerateConsistent findings among multiple ‘low quality trials’ corresponding to moderate quality in this systematic review = Level B, and/or one level A

LimitedOne level B

ConflictingInconsistent findings among multiple trials

No evidenceNo trials