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Table 2

Summary of articles for patients with acute–subacute LBP
AUTHORS sample size LBP statusMethodological quality of studiesIntervention+co-interventionComparison group+co-interventionOutcomes measures of interestClinical relevance status on timing outcomes: between groups P value and effect sizes
Santilli et al.57 (2006) N = 102Level A 10/11MT1Sham MT1Local and radiating pain (VAS)YES: at 45 days, P<0.0001 and MD = 1.8; at 90 days, P<0.0001 and MD = 1.8
ALBP 1–3Care provider not blinded5 times per week for maximum 4 weeks5 times per week for maximum 4 weeksTime to pain free statusYES: At 180 days, for local pain: P<0.005 and MD = 22% and for radiating pain: P<0.0001 and MD 35%
Overall-Health (SF-36)NO: non-significant differences between groups

Hoiriis et al.58 (2004) N = 192Level A 9/11MT1+drug placeboSham MT1+myorelaxant drugPain (VAS)YES: 4 weeks, P<0.05 and SMD  =  0.70
ALBP 1Care provider not blinded? no intention-to-treat-analysis7 sessions over 2 weeks for all groupsSham MT1+placebo drugFunctional disabilities (ODI)NO: at 4 weeks, NS and SMD = 0.35 (MT1 vs myorelaxant), 0.29 (MT1 vs placebo)

Von Heymann et al.59 (2013) N = 101Level A 10/11MT1+drug placeboSham MT1+placebo drugPain (VAS)YES: at 9 days between groups P = 0.013 and MD = 2.0
ALBP 1-2Care provider not blinded2–3 sessions over 1 week for all groupsSham MT1+diclofenacFunctional disabilities (RMDQ)YES: at 9 days between groups P = 0.013 and SMD = 0.60
Quality of life (SF-12, medication consumption, work-off)NO: non-significant differences between groups

Bishop et al.60 (2010) N = 88Level B 8/11MT1 + UMCUMC aloneFunctional disabilities (RMDQ)YES: at 16–24 weeks, P = 0.002 and MD  =  2.6
ALBP 1–2Care provider and patients not blinded, no intention-to-treat-analysis2–3 sessions over 4 weeks

Cruser et al.61 (2012) N = 63Level B 9/11MT3+UMCUMC alonePain (VAS)YES: at 4 weeks: for pain now, P = 0.025 and SMD = 1.04; for pain typical, P = 0.020 and SMD = 0.88
ALBP 1–3Care provider and patients not blinded4 sessions over 4 weeksFunctional disabilities (RMDQ)YES: at 4 weeks: P = 0.026 and SMD = 0.56
ALBP = acute LBP
ASLBP = acute and subacute LBP:

1 = LBP alone,
2 = LBP radiating not below knee,
3 =  LBP radiating below knee without neurologic deficit.

MT = manual therapy;
MT1 = spinal manipulation,
MT2 = spinal mobilization techniques;
MT3 = MT1+MT2.
UMC = usual medical care.
NS = non-statistically significant difference.
SMD = between groups standardized mean of difference;
MD = between groups mean of difference. Yes = P<0.05+moderate-large effect size (SMD, MD) in favour of MT.

VAS = Visual Analogical Scale;
NPRS = Numerical Pain Rating Scale;
ODI = Oswestry Disability Index;
RMDQ = Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire;
SF-36 = short-form-health-survey.

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