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Table 3

Summary of articles for patients with chronic LBP
AUTHORS Sample size LBP statusMethodological quality of studiesIntervention group+co-interventionComparison group+co-interventionOutcomes measures of interestClinical relevance status on timing outcomes: between groups p-value and effect sizes
Ghroubi et al.62 (2007) N = 64CLBP1Level A 9/11Care provider not blinded? for ITTMT14 sessions per week over 1 monthSham MT11 session over 1 monthPain (VAS)Functional disabilities (ODI)YES: at 4 weeks, P<0.001 and SMD = 0.86; 8 weeks, P<0.001 and SMD = 0.54
YES: at 8 weeks, P<0.001 and SMD = 0.40

Senna et al.63 (2011) N = 93CLBP1–2Level A 10/11Care provider not blindedMT1 non-maintainedSham MT1Pain (VAS)YES: at 10 months, P<0.005 and MD = 1.9
MT1 maintained 3 sessions per week over 1 month for all groups, with 1 session/2 weeks during 9 months for MT1 maintainedFunctional disabilities (ODI)Overall-Health (SF36)YES: at 10 months, P<0.001 and MD = 18.9YES: at 10 months, P<0.001 and MD = 7.8

Niemistö et al.32 (2003) N = 204CLBP1–3Level B 8/11Care provider and patients not blinded? for ITTMT2+exercise and UMC4 sessions of 60 minutes over 1 monthUMC1 session of 60 minutes over 1 monthPain (VAS)Functional disabilities (ODI)YES: at 1 year, P<0.001 and SMD = 0.60YES: at 1 year, P = 0.002 and SMD = 0.45

Aure et al.49 (2003) N = 49CLBP1–3Level B 9/11Care provider and patients not blindedMT3+exercise2 sessions of 45 minutes per week over 8 weeks for each groupExercisePain (VAS)YES: at 1 year: P<0.05 and MD = 1.5
Functional disabilities (ODI)YES: at 1 year: P<0.05 and MD = 9
Quality of life: Return to workYES: at 1 month, P<0.01 and MD = 40%

Cecchi et al.34 (2010) N = 210CLBP1–2Level B 9/11Care provider not blindedMT3+UMC4–6 sessions of 20 minutes/week over 4–6 weeksBack school+UMC Physiotherapy+UMC15 sessions of 60’ over 3 weeksPain (NPRS)YES: at 1 year, P<0.001 and SMD = 0.7 (MT3+UMC vs Back school+UMC), and SMD = 1.1 ( MT3+UMC vs physiotherapy+UMC)
Functional disabilities (RMDQ)YES: at 1 year: P<0.001 and SMD = 0.7 (MT3+UMC vs Back school+UMC) and SMD = 0.73 (MT3+UMC vs physiotherapy+UMC)

Rasmussen et al.64 (2008) N = 72CLBP1–3Level B 8/11No for patient and care provider blinded and? for ITTMT1+extension exercises3 sessions over 1 month+everyday exercise over 1 month.Extension exercises aloneEveryday exercise over 1 monthBack and leg pain (VAS)NO: at 1 month and 1 year, NS differences for all outcomes measures
CLBP = chronic LBP:
1 = LBP alone,
2 = LBP radiating not below knee,
3 = LBP radiating below knee without neurologic deficit.

MT = manual therapy,
MT1 = spinal manipulation,
MT2 = spinal mobilization techniques,
MT3 = MT1+MT2, MT3+specific and general exercises.
UMC = usual medical care.
NS = non-statistically significant difference.
SMD = between groups standardized mean of difference,
MD = between groups mean of difference. Yes = P<0.05+moderate-large effect size (SMD, MD) in favour of MT.

VAS = Visual Analogical Scale,
NPRS = Numerical Pain Rating Scale,
ODI = Oswestry Disability Index,
RMDQ = Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire,
SF-36 = short-form-health-survey.

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