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Table 3

GP care alone versus other treatment

Study ID and perspectiveIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio (in cost per one unit of effect gained) or cost-benefit outcome
Cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analysis
Hollinghurst et al. [24]
 Perspective: healthcare sector, patients, societalCompared to GP care alone from healthcare sector’s perspective only, in 2005 GBP
•Disability (RMDQ) = 448
•Pain-free day = 26
•QALY gained (EQ-5D) = −34,473 (less effective and more costly)
Alexander technique (6 lessons):
•Disability(RMDQ) = 113
•Pain-free days = 13
•QALY gained (EQ-5D) = 5,899
Jellema et al. [25]
 Perspective: societalMinimal psychosocial intervention compared to GP care alone 2002 Euro:
•Disability (RMDQ) = 690
•Recovery rate (% recovered) = 239
•QALY gained (EQ-5D) = 47,348
Johnson et al. [26]
 Perspective: not stated, but collected direct healthcare costsExercise and education using a cognitive-behavioural approach compared to GP care alone = 5,000 in 2003–2004 GBP per QALY gained (EQ-5D)
Loisel et al. [20]
 Perspective: insurance providerCompared to GP care alone, in 1998 Canadian dollars per days on full sickness benefits:
•Clinical rehabilitation = −67.6
•Occupational intervention = −88.4
•Clinical rehabilitation plus occupational intervention = −63.5
Ratcliffe et al. [27]
 Perspective: healthcare sector, societalAcupuncture compared to usual GP care, in 2002–2003 GBP per QALY gained (EQ-5D):
•From healthcare sector’s perspective = 4,241 (95% CI = 191–28,026)
•From societal perspective and with intention-to-treat analysis, acupuncture dominant
Cost-benefit analysis
Loisel et al. [20]
 Perspective: insurance providerCompared to GP care alone, in 1998 Canadian dollars:
•Clinical rehabilitation = 16,176
•Occupational intervention = 16,827
•Clinical rehabilitation plus occupational intervention = 18,585
Skouen et al. [21]
 Perspective: societalLight multidisciplinary treatment in male patients compared to usual GP care alone = 7,240,900 for the male participants (n = 21) over 24 months in 1998 Norwegian kroner
GBP United Kingdom pounds, RMDQ Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, QALY quality-adjusted life-years