Table 3

Baseline self-reported psychological and health characteristics of participants

Psychological and other health measures (Denominatora) n = 609
HADs anxiety subscale (607)
 Normal316 (52.1)
 Mild/possible case120 (19.8)
 Probable/moderate/severe case171 (28.2)
HADs depression subscale (609)
 Normal392 (64.4)
 Mild/possible case119 (19.5)
 Probable/moderate/severe case98 (16.1)
Pain self-efficacy score (593), mean (SD)34.1 (14.6)
Illness perceptions questionnaire-short form (IPQ-R)
 Timeline-‘back/leg pain will last for a long time (agree or strongly agree) (609)345 (56.7)
 Personal control-‘what I do can determine whether back/leg pain gets better (agree or strongly agree) (605)367 (60.7)
 Identity score (0–7) (584), mean (SD)5.9 (1.3)
General Health (608)
 Excellent/very good146 (24.0)
 Good241 (39.5)
 Fair172 (28.3)
 Poor50 (8.2)
Co-morbidities b (609)
 None371 (60.9)
 One other health problem158 (25.9)
 Two or more other health problems80 (13.1)
EQ—5D—3L summary index (590)0.44 (0.32)
All figures are frequencies (percentages) unless stated otherwise as mean (SD)

aDenominator varies for some participants due to missing data or not applicable case

bThe health problems include chest problems, heart problems, raised blood pressure, diabetes, and circulation problems in the leg