Table 2 Evidence-Based Diagnostic Criteria and Tools to Determine a Working Diagnosis of Conditions Arising From Nociceptive Pain
Diagnosis Diagnostic Criteria/Tools Evidence Base
Nociceptive pain •Clear proportionate mechanical/anatomical nature to symptoms•Pain in proportion to trauma/pathology•Pain in area of injury/dysfunction with/without referral•Resolving consistent with expected tissue healing time•Usually intermittent and sharp with movement/mechanical provocation•Pain in association with other symptoms of inflammation (eg, swelling, redness) Expert consensus criteria [21, 37]
Discogenic pain •Centralization phenomenon Diagnostic utility studies [36]
Myofascial pain •Palpable taut region within a muscle with or without referred pain•Reproduction of familiar pain upon palpation or muscle use Expert consensus criteria consistent with IASP terminology [21]
Sacroiliac joint pain 3 or more positive provocation tests reproducing familiar pain:•Distraction•Compression•Thigh thrust•Gaenslen’s left or right•Sacral thrust or Patrick’s test Diagnostic utility studies [35, 36]
Zygapophyseal (facet) joint pain 3 or more:•Age over 50 y•Onset paraspinal•Pain relieved with walking•Pain relieved with sitting•Positive extension-rotation test Diagnostic utility study [43]
Nociceptive vs neuropathic pain •DN4•PainDETECT questionnaire•LANSS Pain Scale•Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire•ID Pain questionnaire•PROMIS PQ-Neuro Validated instruments based on expert consensus criteria [12, 56, 37-42]
DN4, Douleur Neruopathique 4;
IASP, International Association for the Study of Pain;
LANSS, Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs; PROMIS PQ-Neuro, Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Neuropathic Pain Quality Scale.