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Table 3

Study design for cost comparisons in worker’s compensation plans

First authorYearLocation/Payer typeData type/SourceData start -Data endIndication/DurationInclusionExclusion# Insured/# Eligible/# Included
Butler[39]2010National/Self-insured employers1. Claims, 2. Billing, 3. Patients/ASU Healthy Back Study1/1/1999 - 6/30/2002Occupational back pain/AnyIncident back injuriesNRNR/1,831/984a
Cifuentes[37]2011National/Private insurerClaims/Liberty Mutual1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006Lower back, sacrum, coccyx, multiple trunk Any1. Nonspecific low back pain cases, and 2. Sprain or strain injury1. Medical only claims; 2. Previous WC claims; 3. Temporary disability < seven days; 4. <four visits to PT/DC; 5. First visit >14 days after injury; 6. Health maintenance period < seven daysNR/11,420/894
Gilkey [35]2008Colorado/Quasi state agencyClaims/Pinnacol Assurance1/1/2000 - 12/31/2002Nonspecific low back injury/AnyClosed claims for nonspecific low back injuries1. Multiple providers; 2. Hospitalization; 3. SurgeryNR/10,262/2,456
Jarvis [38]1997Utah/Nonprofit insurerClaims/Worker Compensation Fund of Utah1/1/1986 - 12/31/1989Spine injuries/Any2.5 % sample of NCCI codes for spine injuries in 1986 or 19891. Surgical cases; 2. Cases that crossed over from one provider group to anotherNR/80,615/1,568
Johnson [34]1999California/Private insurerClaims/Zenith National Insurance Corp.10/1/1991 - 8/1/1993Occupational back pain/AnyClosed back claims1. Surgical cases; 2. Missing data; 3. Did not receive care from PT or DC; 4. Received care from PT and DC; 5. Permanent total disability casesNR/844/844
Phelan [36]2004North Carolina /Various payersClaims/North Carolina Industrial Commission1/1/1975 - 12/31/1994Lumbar or lumbosacral strain/Any1. Closed injury claims, and 2. Complete data availableNR96,627/43,650/43,650
adata reported in a secondary study report [47]

ASU Arizona State University, DC doctor of chiropractic, NCCI National Council on Compensation Insurance, NR not reported, PT physical therapist, WC workers’ compensation