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Table 7

Quality assessment of cost comparison studies also examining clinical outcomes

#QuestionBronfort, 2000 [46]Carey, 1995 [40]Cherkin, 1998 [44]Haas, 2005 [41]Kominski, 2005 [45]Sharma, 2009 [43]Stano, 2002 [42]Total
1Is the study population clearly described?yesnoyesyesnoyesyes5
2Are competing alternatives clearly described?yesnoyesnoyesnono3
3Is a well-defined research question posed in answerable form?yesyesyesyesyesyesno6
4Is the economic study design appropriate to the stated objective?yesyesyesyesyesyesyes7
5Is the chosen time horizon appropriate in order to include relevant costs and consequences?nonoyesyesyesyesyes5
6Is the actual perspective chosen appropriate?nonoyesnoyesnono2
7Are all important and relevant costs for each alternative identified?noyesyesnoyesnono3
8Are all costs measured appropriately in physical units?noyesyesnoyesnono3
9Are costs valued appropriately?nonoyesnononono1
10Are all important and relevant outcomes for each alternative identified?yesnoyesyesyesyesyes6
11Are all outcomes measured appropriately?yesyesyesyesyesyesyes7
12Are outcomes valued appropriately?nonononononono0
13Is an incremental analysis of costs and outcomes of alternatives performed?nononoyesnonoyes2
14Are all future costs and outcomes discounted appropriately?a N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
15Are all important variables, whose values are uncertain, appropriately subjected to sensitivity analysis?nononononoyesno1
16Do the conclusions follow from the data reported?yesyesyesyesyesyesyes7
17Does the study discuss the generalizability of the results to other settings and patient/client groups?yesnoyesyesyesyesyes6
18Does the article indicate that there is no potential conflict of interest of study researcher(s) and funder(s)?yesyesyesyesyesyesyes7
19Are ethical and distributional issues discussed appropriately?nonononononono0
anot applicable (i.e. studies did not project future costs or health outcomes)

N/A not applicable