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Table 2

Self-assessment questionnaires used for patients with neck pain

QuestionnaireConstructs measuredPsychometric status
ASPS (extended) 46Pain behavior during activities and restExtended to fit to neck pain. Reliable, valid, and responsive
BQ (modified)47Covers all dimensions of the biopsychosocial model of painReliable, valid, and responsive in nonspecific neck pain
CNFDS55Function/disability; 15 questions of normal daily activitiesSimilar to NDI
Global Assessment of Neck Pain56Function/disability; 5 categories from “free of neck trouble” to totally disabled by neck troubleCorrelates well with CNFDS
Neck Pain and Disability Scale57,58Function/disabilityScores strongly correlated with NDI; r = 0.86. Good content validity
NDI50,59,60Pain; function/disability; 10 sectionsCriterion standard revalidated in different study populations
NPQ52Pain; function/disability; 10 parametersSimilar to NDI
CSOQ48Pain; function/disability; psychosocial status; health care utilizationHigh reliability, good validity, and responsiveness to change
PSFS (neck)51Function/disabilityVery sensitive to functional changes in individual patients
PET52Pain; function/disability; psychosocial statusCannot be used in research; no standardization of content (like PSFS)
WDQ53,58Pain; function/disability; psychosocial statusWhiplash specific; ICC = 0.96
Short Core Neck Pain Questionnaire61Function/disabilityGood reliability and validity in mechanical neck pain
NHANES-ADL (neck)62Function/disability; physical, social, emotional; 16 items of ADLsGood reliability and validity in cervical pain
CPH4263Pain; function/disability; psychosocial statusICC = 0.91, a = 0.90. Sensitive to changes in severity over time
Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (neck)64,65Psychosocial status: how physical activity and work affect pain, 16 statementsModified for neck patients. ICC = 0.81, a = 0.90. Good construct validity, medium responsiveness
SF-36 Item Health Survey66Health-related quality of life physical and mental componentsMeasures general health status; widely used