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Table 2

Descriptions of the interventions

InterventionTypeProgram designDelivery methodDose
High velocity, low amplitude manipulation (can be drop-table assisted) [[41]]
Individualized: spinal regions treated and type of therapy used is determined by the chiropractor [[42],[43]]
Treatment delivered by licensed chiropractors with at least 5 years experience
20 to 30 minute visits
Minimum: 1 visit/month
Low velocity, low amplitude mobilization
Maximum: 2 visits/week
Individualized: Number of treatments determined by chiropractor & patient [[40],[44],[45]]
Manual distraction, gentle soft tissue massage, hot or cold therapy, and active or passive muscle stretching to facilitate SMT
SREAerobic warm up
Partially individualized: exercise selection, progression, and repetitions are determined by patient’s abilities and toleranceSupervised by exercise therapists*
45 to 60 minute sessions
Stretching, strengthening, and balance exercises
Minimum: 1 session/month
Home exercise encouraged between sessions
Advice to stay active; self-care tips for pain management [[46],[47]]Uses resistance bands, stability trainers, chairs
*Exercise therapists are under the supervision of treating chiropractors.