Pain. 2011 (May); 152 (5): 1090-1095
Roelofs J, van Breukelen G, Sluiter J, Frings-Dresen MH, Goossens M, Thibault P, Boersma K, Vlaeyen JW.
Department of Clinical Psychological Science,
Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
The present study aimed to develop norms for the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), a frequently used measure of fear of movement/(re)injury. Norms were assessed for the TSK total score as well as for scores on the previously proposed TSK activity avoidance and TSK somatic focus scales. Data from Dutch, Canadian, and Swedish pain samples were used (N=3082). Norms were established using multiple regression to obtain more valid and reliable norms than can be obtained by subgroup analyses based on age or gender. In the Dutch samples (N=2236), pain diagnosis was predictive of all TSK scales.
More specifically, chronic low back pain displayed the highest scores on the TSK scores followed by upper extremity disorder, fibromyalgia, and osteoarthritis. Gender was predictive of TSK somatic focus scores and age of TSK activity avoidance scores, with male patients having somewhat higher scores than female patients and older patients having higher scores compared with younger patients. In the Canadian (N=510) and Swedish (N=336) samples, gender was predictive of all TSK scales, with male patients having somewhat higher scores than female patients. These norm data may assist the clinician and researcher in the process of decision making and treatment evaluation.