Government inquiries, as well as independent investigations, have affirmed
that today's chiropractic academic training is of equivalent standard to medical
training in all pre-clinical subjects. The Council on Chiropractic Education
(CCE) and its Commission on Accreditation, as recognized by the U.S. Department
of Education, maintain high standards in chiropractic education.
Postdoctoral training in a variety of clinical disciplines and specialties is
available through accredited colleges and specialty councils. Postgraduate
Applied Chiropractic Sciences
Chiropractic is one of many occupations that are regulated by state licensing
agencies. The requirements for chiropractic licensure vary from state to state
(and country to country). Some states require a Bachelor's degree as a
prerequisite for licensure.
To assist the various regulatory agencies in assessing candidates for
licensure, the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) develops and
administers examinations to individuals currently in the chiropractic
educational system or who have completed a chiropractic education program. The
NBCE also offers an examination designed for previously licensed individuals. A
candidate for licensure may request that transcripts of scores from NBCE
examinations be forwarded to licensing agencies that assess eligibility for
Scores from NBCE examinations are made available to licensing agencies
throughout the U.S. and to many licensing authorities outside the U.S.
(NOTE: The NBCE does NOT distribute copies of the studies cited. These
must be obtained from the publisher or distribution source.)
Aker, Peter D., Anita R. Gross, Charles H. Goldsmith, and Paul Peloso. 1996.
"Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain: Systematic Overview and
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H. Kirk, and Alan Adams. 1992. "A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials of Spinal
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Blunt, Kelli L., Moez H. Rajwani, and Rocco C. Guerriero. 1997. "The
Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management of Fibromyalgia Patients: A Pilot
Study." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
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Boline, PD, Kassak, K, Br7nfort, G, Nelson, C, and Anderson, AV.
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ndomized Clinical Trial
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995 (Mar); 18 (3): 148–154
Brin, Dinah Wisenberg, July 2 1998, "Study Credits Chiropractors with Right
Procedures," The Scranton Times, 14+.
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Indications." Neurologic Clinics of North America 17,
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no. 2: 96-103.
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"Chiropractors File Supreme Court Response to AMA's Requests for Review."
1990. Press Release. November 5. Chicago, Illinois.
Davis, P. Thomas, James R. Hulbert, Kassem M. Kassak, and John J. Meyer.
1998. "Comparative Efficacy of Conservative Medical and Chiropractic Treatments
for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 21,
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Ebrall, Phillip S. 1992. "Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Comparison of Medical
and Chiropractic Management within the Victorian WorkCare Scheme." Chiropractic Journal of Australia 22, no. 2: 47-53.
Eisenberg, David M., Roger B. Davis, Susan L. Ettner, Scott Appel, Sonja
Wilkey, Maria Van Rompay, and Ronald C. Kessler. 1998. "Trends in Alternative
Medicine Use in the United States, 1990-1997: Results of a Follow-up National
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Howe, D. H., R. G. Newcombe, and M. T. Wade. 1983. "Manipulation of the
Cervical Spine-A Pilot Study." Journal of the Royal College
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Hurwitz, Eric L., Peter D. Aker, Alan H. Adams, William C. Meeker, and Paul
G. Shekelle. 1996. "Manipulation and Mobilization of the Cervical Spine: A
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Klougart, Niels, Niels Nilsson, and Jens Jacobsen. 1989. "Infantile Colic
Treated by Chiropractors: A Prospective Study of 316 Cases." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 12,
no. 4: 281-288.
Koes, Bart W., Lex M. Bouter, Henk van Mameren, et al. 1992. "A Blinded
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Landmark Healthcare, Inc. 1998. The Landmark Report on
Public Perceptions of Alternative Care. Sacramento, CA: Landmark
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Manga, Pran, Doug Angus, Costa Papadopoulos, and William Swan. 1993. The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management
of Low-Back Pain. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
Manga, Pran, and Doug Angus. 1998. Enhanced Chiropractic
Coverage under OHIP as a Means of Reducing Health Care Costs, Attaining Better
Health Outcomes and Achieving Equitable Access to Health Services.
Meade, T. W., S. Dyer, W. Browne, J. Townsend, and A. O. Frank. 1990. "Low
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Mosley, Carrie D., Ilana G. Cohen, and Roy M. Arnold. 1996.
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Nilsson, Niels, Henrik Wulff Christensen, and Jan Hartvigsen. 1997. "The
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Robot H. Brook. 1992. "Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain."
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Stano, Miron, Jack Ehrhart, and Thomas J. Allenburg. 1992. "The Growing Role
of Chiropractic in Health Care Delivery." Journal of American
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Triano, John J., Marion McGregor, and Dennis R. Skogsbergh. 1997. "Use of
Chiropractic Manipulation in Lumbar Rehabilitation." Journal
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Chiropractic Outcome Study: Pain, Functional Ability and Satisfaction with
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Wolk, Steve. 1988. "An Analysis of Workers' Compensation Medical
Claims for Back-Related Injuries." ACA Journal of
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