Government inquiries, as well as independent investigations, have affirmed
that today's chiropractic academic training is of equivalent standard to medical
training in all pre-clinical subjects. The Council on Chiropractic Education
(CCE) and its Commission on Accreditation, as recognized by the U.S. Department
of Education, maintain high standards in chiropractic education.
Postdoctoral training in a variety of clinical disciplines and specialties is
available through accredited colleges and specialty councils. Postgraduate
Applied Chiropractic Sciences
Chiropractic is one of many occupations that are regulated by state licensing
agencies. The requirements for chiropractic licensure vary from state to state
(and country to country). Some states require a Bachelor's degree as a
prerequisite for licensure.
To assist the various regulatory agencies in assessing candidates for
licensure, the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) develops and
administers examinations to individuals currently in the chiropractic
educational system or who have completed a chiropractic education program. The
NBCE also offers an examination designed for previously licensed individuals. A
candidate for licensure may request that transcripts of scores from NBCE
examinations be forwarded to licensing agencies that assess eligibility for
Scores from NBCE examinations are made available to licensing agencies
throughout the U.S. and to many licensing authorities outside the U.S.
(NOTE: The NBCE does NOT distribute copies of the studies cited. These
must be obtained from the publisher or distribution source.)
Aker, Peter D., Anita R. Gross, Charles H. Goldsmith, and Paul Peloso. 1996.
"Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain: Systematic Overview and
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H. Kirk, and Alan Adams. 1992. "A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials of Spinal
Manipulation." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
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Astin, John A. 1998. "Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine." Journal of the American Medical Association 279, no. 19:
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Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14.
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Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1994
Blunt, Kelli L., Moez H. Rajwani, and Rocco C. Guerriero. 1997. "The
Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management of Fibromyalgia Patients: A Pilot
Study." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
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Boline, PD, Kassak, K, Br7nfort, G, Nelson, C, and Anderson, AV.
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ndomized Clinical Trial
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995 (Mar); 18 (3): 148–154
Brin, Dinah Wisenberg, July 2 1998, "Study Credits Chiropractors with Right
Procedures," The Scranton Times, 14+.
Bronfort, Gert. 1999. "Spinal Manipulation: Current State of Research and Its
Indications." Neurologic Clinics of North America 17,
no. 1: 91-111.
Cassidy, J. David, Haymo W. Thiel, and William H. Kirkaldy-Willis. 1993.
"Side Posture Manipulation for Lumbar Intervertebral Disk Herniation." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 16,
no. 2: 96-103.
Cherkin, Daniel C., and Frederick A. MacCornack. 1989. "Patient Evaluations
of Low Back Pain Care from Family Physicians and Chiropractors." Western Journal of Medicine 150 (March): 351-355.
"Chiropractors File Supreme Court Response to AMA's Requests for Review."
1990. Press Release. November 5. Chicago, Illinois.
Davis, P. Thomas, James R. Hulbert, Kassem M. Kassak, and John J. Meyer.
1998. "Comparative Efficacy of Conservative Medical and Chiropractic Treatments
for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 21,
no. 5: 317-326.
DiFabio, R.P. 1992. "Efficacy of Manual Therapy." Physical
Therapy 72, no. 12: 853-864.
Ebrall, Phillip S. 1992. "Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Comparison of Medical
and Chiropractic Management within the Victorian WorkCare Scheme." Chiropractic Journal of Australia 22, no. 2: 47-53.
Eisenberg, David M., Roger B. Davis, Susan L. Ettner, Scott Appel, Sonja
Wilkey, Maria Van Rompay, and Ronald C. Kessler. 1998. "Trends in Alternative
Medicine Use in the United States, 1990-1997: Results of a Follow-up National
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Eisenberg, David M., Ronald C. Kessler, Cindy Foster, Francis E. Norlock, Dav
R. Calkins, and Thomas L. Delbanco. 1993. "Unconventional Medicine in the United
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Howe, D. H., R. G. Newcombe, and M. T. Wade. 1983. "Manipulation of the
Cervical Spine-A Pilot Study." Journal of the Royal College
of General Practitioners 33: 574-579.
Hurwitz, Eric L., Peter D. Aker, Alan H. Adams, William C. Meeker, and Paul
G. Shekelle. 1996. "Manipulation and Mobilization of the Cervical Spine: A
Systematic Review of the Literature." Spine 21, no.
Klougart, Niels, Niels Nilsson, and Jens Jacobsen. 1989. "Infantile Colic
Treated by Chiropractors: A Prospective Study of 316 Cases." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 12,
no. 4: 281-288.
Koes, Bart W., Lex M. Bouter, Henk van Mameren, et al. 1992. "A Blinded
Randomized Clinical Trial of Manual Therapy and Physiotherapy for Chronic Back
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Landmark Healthcare, Inc. 1998. The Landmark Report on
Public Perceptions of Alternative Care. Sacramento, CA: Landmark
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HMOs and Alternative Care. Sacramento, CA:Landmark Healthcare, Inc.
Manga, Pran, Doug Angus, Costa Papadopoulos, and William Swan. 1993. The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management
of Low-Back Pain. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
Manga, Pran, and Doug Angus. 1998. Enhanced Chiropractic
Coverage under OHIP as a Means of Reducing Health Care Costs, Attaining Better
Health Outcomes and Achieving Equitable Access to Health Services.
Meade, T. W., S. Dyer, W. Browne, J. Townsend, and A. O. Frank. 1990. "Low
Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomized Comparison of Chiropractic and
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Micozzi, Mark. 1998. "Complementary Care: When is it Appropriate? Who Will
Provide It?" Annals of Internal Medicine 129: 65-66.
Mitchell, Barry S., B. Kim Humphreys, and Elizabeth O'Sullivan. 1998.
"Attachments of the Ligamentum Nuchae to Cervical Posterior Spinal Dura and the
Lateral Part of the Occipital Bone." Journal of Manipulative
and Physiological Therapeutics 21, no. 3: 145-48.
Mosley, Carrie D., Ilana G. Cohen, and Roy M. Arnold. 1996.
"Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Care in a Managed Care Setting." American Journal of Managed Care 2, no. 3: 280-282.
Nilsson, Niels, Henrik Wulff Christensen, and Jan Hartvigsen. 1997. "The
Effect of Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 20,
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Robot H. Brook. 1992. "Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain."
Annals of Internal Medicine 117, no. 7: 590-598.
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Back Care." Medical Care 34, no. 3: 191-204.
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Medical Patients." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
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Stano, Miron, Jack Ehrhart, and Thomas J. Allenburg. 1992. "The Growing Role
of Chiropractic in Health Care Delivery." Journal of American
Health Policy (November/December): 39-45.
Triano, John J., Marion McGregor, and Dennis R. Skogsbergh. 1997. "Use of
Chiropractic Manipulation in Lumbar Rehabilitation." Journal
of Rehabilitative Research and Development 34, no. 4: . 394-404.
Van Tulder, Maurits W., Bart W. Koes, and Lex M. Boater. 1997. "Conservative
Treatment of Acute and Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of
Randomized Controlled Trials of the Most Common Interventions."
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Verhoef, Maria J., Stacy A. Page, and Stephen C. Waddell. 1997. "The
Chiropractic Outcome Study: Pain, Functional Ability and Satisfaction with
Care." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
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Wiberg, Jesper M. M., Jan Nordsteen, and Niels Nilsson. 1999. "The Short-term
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Wolk, Steve. 1988. "An Analysis of Workers' Compensation Medical
Claims for Back-Related Injuries." ACA Journal of
Chiropractic (July): 50-59.
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
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