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Published online 2010 Dec 21. doi:  10.1186/1746-1340-18-34

Table 1

Return to:   A Longitudinal Study of Chiropractic Use Among Older Adults in the United States

Baseline means of demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variables for nonusers and users of chiropractic

Entire Analytic Sample
(N = 5,510)
Nonusers
(N = 4,704)
Users
(N = 806)
p-value
Demographic Factors
 Age77.4 (5.76)77.6 (5.87)76.0 (4.87)< .0001
 Male38.1%37.8%39.7%0.319
 Race
  White84.8%83.1%94.8%< .0001
  African American10.2%11.5%2.4%< .0001
  Hispanic3.9%4.2%2.7%.0413
  Other1.1%1.2%0.2%< .0064
 Marital Status
  Married50.3%48.2%62.8%< .0001
  Never Married3.4%3.6%2.0%0.0192
  Separated/Divorced5.0%5.2%3.7%0.0697
  Widowed41.3%43.0%31.5%< .0001
Socioeconomic Factors
 Educational Attainment
  Grade School Only25.5%26.6%19.0%< .0001
  Some High School17.2%17.5%15.2%0.0981
  High School30.4%29.5%35.6%0.0005
  Some College26.9%26.4%30.2%0.0238
 Income Distribution
  Income - First Quintile15.6%16.9%8.0%< .0001
  Income - Second Quintile29.9%30.9%24.0%< .0001
  Income - Third Quintile13.0%13.2%12.4%0.5572
  Income - Fourth Quintile18.7%17.9%23.3%0.0003
  Income - Fifth Quintile22.7%21.0%32.2%< .0001
 One or More Health Insurance Policy74.9%73.5%82.5%< .0001
 Working for Pay8.8%8.4%11.3%0.0007
 Able to Drive a Car67.9%64.8%85.6%< .0001
Geographic Location Measures
 Northeast6.1%6.4%4.5%0.0442
 New York/New Jersey12.7%12.7%12.7%0.9471
 Mid-Atlantic9.1%9.5%6.6%0.0081
 Southeast17.2%17.5%15.2%0.1035
 North-Central20.6%19.8%25.2%0.0005
 Mid-West4.8%4.3%8.0%< .0001
 South-West10.8%11.5%7.1%.0002
 Mountain3.2%3.4%2.0%0.0354
 West11.4%11.2%12.9%0.1539
 Pacific-Northwest3.7%3.4%5.8%0.0009
 Rural24.8%24.3%27.5%0.0493
 Distance to Chiropractic College - Far62.6%62.7%62.4%0.8651
Disease History and Comorbidity
 No Comorbid Conditions22.7%22.0%26.4%0.0062
 One Comorbid Condition32.5%32.2%34.1%0.3026
 Two Comorbid Conditions25.1%25.5%22.6%0.0801
 Three or More Comorbid Conditions19.7%20.3%16.9%0.029
 Arthritis Ever24.7%24.5%25.8%0.4134
 Cancer Ever12.9%13.0%12.4%0.6119
 Heart Condition Ever28.9%29.6%25.0%0.0086
 Diabetes Now12.4%12.8%10.3%0.0466
 Lung Disease Ever9.4%9.9%6.3%0.0009
 Psych Problems Ever7.0%6.9%7.4%0.6301
 Hip Fracture Ever4.8%5.2%2.8%0.0031
 Hypertension Ever45.5%46.4%40.6%0.0021
Functional Status
 Bothered by Pain Often32.7%32.3%34.9%0.1379
 Difficulty Picking Up a Dime8.1%8.5%6.1%0.0205
 Difficulty Lifting 10 Pounds32.7%34.4%22.8%< .0001
 Difficulty Pushing/Pulling Large Object33.8%35.2%25.5%< .0001
 Difficulty Climbing Flight of Stairs27.9%29.6%18.5%< .0001
 Difficulty Walking Several Blocks37.4%39.2%26.8%< .0001
 Number of ADLs with Difficulty0.34(0.84)0.38(0.88)0.17(0.56)< .0001
 Number of IADLs with Difficulty0.40(0.93)0.45(0.97)0.14(0.51)< .0001
 Depressive Symptoms - None37.8%36.4%45.9%< .0001
 Depressive Symptoms - One to Two35.7%35.4%37.1%0.3518
 Depressive Symptoms - Three or More26.5%28.1%16.9%< .0001
 TICS 7 Score - Zero to Ten28.4%30.2%17.7%< .0001
 TICS 7 Score - Eleven to Thirteen31.7%31.3%34.7%0.056
 TICS 7 Score - Fourteen to Fifteen39.9%38.5%47.7%< .0001
Health Lifestyles
 Never Smoked47.9%47.7%49.5%0.3481
 Ever Drink Alcohol46.6%45.0%55.7%< .0001
 Obese Weight (BMI ≥ 30)13.6%13.9%12.2%0.1922
 Over Weight (25 ≤ BMI < 30)36.5%35.3%43.3%< .0001
 Normal Weight46.1%46.6%43.2%0.076
 Under Weight (BMI < 18.5)3.8%4.2%1.2%< .0001
Self-Rated Health
 Excellent10.4%9.8%13.5%0.0017
 Very Good23.3%21.9%31.7%< .0001
 Good30.8%30.9%30.2%0.691
 Fair23.1%24.0%18.3%0.0003
 Poor12.3%13.4%6.2%< .0001
Utilization of Health Services in Prior 12 months
 Number of Hospitalizations22.8%23.8%17.1%< .0001
 Number of Physician Visits - One or Less24.4%24.8%22.4%0.1411
 Number of Physician Visits - Two to Three27.7%27.3%29.6%0.1731
 Number of Physician Visits - Four to Six27.8%27.6%28.9%0.4648
 Number of Physician Visits - Seven or More20.1%20.3%19.1%0.4471
 Supply of Physicians per 1000 - County level2.18(1.74)2.23(1.8)1.91(1.36)< .0001
Note: Standard deviations for continuous variables are in parentheses. The p-values for categorical variables are Chi-Square tests of association and for continuous variables they are two-tailed t-tests. Physicians are defined as MDs.