Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain:
A Systematic Review Update
(April 16, 2020).

Andrea C. Skelly, Ph.D., M.P.H., Roger Chou, M.D., Joseph R. Dettori, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.P.T.,
Judith A. Turner, Ph.D., et al.

Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2020 (Apr)

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations


ACAttention Control
ACTacceptance and commitment therapy
ACTTIONAnalgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trials Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks
ADLActivities of daily living
AEAdverse event
AIMSArthritis Impact Measurement Scale
AQoL 6DAssessment of Quality of Life version 6D
AUSCANAustralia Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index
BAIBeck Anxiety Inventory
BDIBeck Depression Inventory
BMIBody mass index
BPIBrief Pain Inventory
BPI-SFBrief Pain Inventory-Short Form
CBTCognitive-behavioral therapy
CDC HRQOL-4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire
CES-DCenter for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
CGI-IClinical Global Impressions of Improvement Scale
CGI-SClinical Global Impressions of Severity Scale
CIConfidence interval
CPAQChronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire
CSQCoping Strategies Questionnaire
CTTHChronic tension-type headache
DASSDepression Anxiety Stress Scales
DPQDallas Pain Questionnaire
DFIDreiser Functional Index
DRIDisability Rating Index
EAETemotional awareness and expression therapy
FABQFear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire
FIHOAFunctional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis
FIQFibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire
FMIFreiburg Mindfulness Inventory
FRIFunctional Rating Index
FSIFatigue Symptom Inventory
FSSFatigue Severity Scale
GARGroningen Activity Restriction Scale
GCQ, GBB-24Giessen Complaint Questionnaire
GDSGeriatric Depression Scale
GPEGlobal Perceived Effect Scale
GRADEGrading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
GSIGlobal Severity Index (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised)
HADSHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
HADS-AHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety
HADS-DHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depressions
HAM-AHamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A)
HAM-DHamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D)
HAQHealth Assessment Questionnaire
HDIHeadache Disability Inventory
HHSHarris Hip Score
HFAQHannover Functional Ability
HIT-6Headache Impact Test-6
HRQoLHealth-related quality of life
HSCL-25Hopkin’s Symptom Checklist
HSSHospital for Special Surgery Knee Function
ICERInstitute for Clinical and Economic Review
IMMPACTInitiative on Methods, Measurements, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials
IPAQInternational Physical Activity Questionnaire
IPQ(-R)Illness Perception Questionnaire(-Revised)
IQRInterquartile range
J/cm2Joules per square centimeter
KPSKnee Pain Scale
JLEQJapan Low Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire
JOAJapanese Orthopedic Association
LBPLow back pain
LBPOILow Back Pain Outcome Instrument
LBPRSLow Back Pain Rating Scale
LILequesne Index
LLFDILate Life Function and Disability Instrument
MACTARMcMaster Toronto Arthritis patient preference questionnaire
MASQMood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire
MASSMindful Attention Awareness Scale
MBSRMindfulness-based stress reduction
MCEMotor control exercise
MCIDMinimal clinically important difference
MCS-12Mental component score of the SF-12
MDMean difference
MHzMega Hertz
MIDASMigraine Disability Assessment questionnaire
MRDQModified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire
MOSMedical Outcome Study
MPIMultidimensional Pain Inventory
MPQ(-SF)McGill Pain Questionnaire(-Short Form)
NDINeck Disability Index
Nd:YAGNeodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet
NHPNottingham Health Profile
NHSNational Health Service
NIAMSNational Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIHNational Institute of Health
NPADNeck Pain and Disability Index
NPQNorthwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire
NRNot reported
NRSNumeric Rating Scale
NSNot statistically significant
NSAIDNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NTNo treatment
OARSI-OMERACTOsteoarthritis Research Society International – Outcome Measures in Rheumatology
ODIOswestry Disability Index
OKSOxford Knee Score
PDIPain Disability Index
PHQ-8Patient Health Questionnaire-8-item depression scale
PICOTSPopulations, interventions, comparators, outcomes, timing, settings, study designs
PPSPain Perception Scale
PRPartial response
PRISMAPreferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
PSEQChronic Pain Self Efficacy Scale
PSFSPatient-Specific Functional Scale
PSQIPittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
PSSPerceived Stress Scale
PTPhysical therapy
QBPDSQuebec Back Pain Disability Scale
QHSEach night at bedtime
QOLQuality of life
RAND-36 QoLQuality of Life RAND-36
QoL VASQuality of Life Visual Analog Scale
RCTRandomized controlled trial
RDQRoland-Morris Disability Questionnaire
RRRelative risk
SDStandard Deviation
SASham acupuncture
SCL-90Symptom Checklist 90
SF-12, SF-12 MCS/PCSShort Form-12, Physical Component Score/Mental Component Score
SF-36, SF-36 MCS/PCSShort Form-36, Physical Component Score/Mental Component Score
SF-MPQMcGill Pain Questionnaire Pain Rating Index-Short-Form
SHCISubjective Health Complaint Inventory
SIPSickness Impact Profile
SKFSSaudi version of the Knee Function Scale
SMDStandardized mean difference
SMTSpinal manipulation therapy
SOEStrength of evidence
SSDQStanford Sleep Disorders Questionnaire
SSSSwiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire
STAIState-Trait Anxiety Inventory
TENSTranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
UCUsual Care
UKUnited Kingdom
VASVisual analog scale
VFVon Korff functional disability
VKPSVon Korff pain scale
W/cm2Watt per square centimeter
WHOQOL-BREFWorld Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument
WMDWeighted mean difference
WPAIWork activity impairment subscale
WPSIWahler Physical Symptoms Inventory
ZPSZung Self-Rating Depression Scale

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