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Skelly AC, Chou R, Dettori JR, et al. Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review Update [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2020 Apr. (Comparative Effectiveness Review, No. 227.)

Cover of Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review Update

Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review Update [Internet].

Appendix EQuality Assessment

Table E-1Quality assessment of randomized controlled trials

References are located in Appendix B.

Author, YearRandomizationConcealed Treatment AllocationIntention-to-Treat AnalysisBaseline Group SimilarityPatient BlindedCare Provider BlindedOutcome Assessor/ Data Analyst BlindedCompliance Acceptable in All GroupsAttrition ReportedAttrition AcceptableAttrition Between Groups AcceptableTiming of Outcome Assessment in All Groups SimilarRegistered or Published ProtocolAvoidance of Selective Outcomes ReportingQuality Rating
Abbassi, 2012NoNoYesYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesPoor
Abbott, 2013YesYesYesYesUnclearNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Ajimsha, 2014UnclearUnclearYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Al Rashoud, 2014YesYesUnclearYesYesUnclearYesUnclearNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesFair
Alda, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)UnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearFair
Alfano, 2001YesUnclearNoYesYes (magnetic field, sham); No (usual care)YesYes (outcome assessor); No (data analyst)UnclearYesNoYesYesUnclearYesFair (all comparisons)
Allen, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesNoYesYesYesFair
Altan, 2005UnclearUnclearYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Altan, 2009YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)UnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Amris, 2014YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Andersen, 2008UnclearUnclearYesUnclearNoNoNoNoNoUnclearUnclearYesYesYesPoor
Ang, 2010UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearPoor
Areeudomwong, 2017UnclearYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Arguisuelas, 2017YesUnclearYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Aslan Telci, 2012UnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoNoUnclearNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Assefi, 2005YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesGood
Banth, 2015UnclearUnclearYesUnclearNoNoYesUnclearYesNoUnclearYesNoUnclearPoor
Baptista, 2012YesYesYesNoNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearFair
Baumueller, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Basford,1999YesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Battisti 2004UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoYesNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Bendix,1995, 1997,1998Yes (minimization)Yes (minimization)YesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesNo (22% at 12 months)YesYesUnclearYesFair
Bendix, 2000Yes (minimization)Yes (minimization)YesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesNo (22% at 12\0 months)YesYesNoUnclearFair
Bendix,1996,1998Yes (minimization)Yes (minimization)YesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesNoYesNoYesFair
Bennell, 2005YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesNoYesFair
Bennell, 2016YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Berman,1999YesYesYesYesNoNoUnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Berman, 2004YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNoYesFair
Beurskens,1997YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesUnclearYesFair
Birch,1998UnclearUnclearUnclearNoYes/No*NoYes/No*YesYesYesYesYesNoNoPoor
Blanchard, 1990UnclearUnclearUnclearYesUnclearUnclearNoUnclearYesYesYes - Relax only vs. / No - /relax vs. /YesNoYesPoor
Blodt, 2015YesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearNo (~70%)YesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Boline, 1995YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
Bono, 2015NoYesYesNoYesYesYesYesNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Bourgault, 2015YesUnclearNoYesNoNoNoNoYesNoNoYesYesYesPoor
Bramberg, 2017UnclearYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesFair
Brinkhaus, 2006aYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Brismee, 2007YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYes/No (assessor blinded/ patient reportedYesYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Bronfort, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Brosseau, 2005YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesGood
Brouwer, 2006YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Buckelew, 1998UnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)UnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesPoor (all comparisons)
Cakir, 2014YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoNoFair
Carlsson, 2001UnclearUnclearYesYesYesNoYesUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearYesPoor
Cash, 2015/Sephton 2007YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)NoYesNoNoYesYesNoPoor
Castel, 2012UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesUnclearUnclearPoor
Castel, 2013YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoNoYesNoUnclearPoor
Castien, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Castro-Sanchez, 2011[a]YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Castro-Sanchez, 2011[b]UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Cedraschi, 2004YesYesNoYesNoNoNoNoYesNoNoYesNoUnclearPoor
Chen, 2014YesYesYesUnclearUnclearNoYesYesNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Cherkin, 2001YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Cherkin, 2009UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Cherkin, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Cherkin, 2016YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
Chiu, 2011YesYesYesNo*NoNoNoUnclearYesNo**No**YesNoYesPoor
Cho, 2013YesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Cho, 2014YesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesPoor
Chow, 2006YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesGood
Clarke-Jenssen 2014YesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearFair
Correa, 2016YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Costa, 2009YesYesYesYesNo (not blinded to exercise)NoYesYesYes (figure 1)YesYesYesYesYesFair
Da Costa, 2005YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoYesYesNoYesFair
de Araujo Cazotti, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
de Rooij, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Dias, 2003YesUnclearUnclearYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Dilek, 2013YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Djavid, 2007UnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Ebadi, 2012YesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearYesYesYesNoYesYesYesFair
Ebneshahidi, 2005UnclearUnclearYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Edinger, 2005UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoYesYesNoNoYesNoUnclearPoor
Ettinger, 1997YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Falcao, 2008YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesNoUnclearFair
Fary, 2011YesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Ferreira, 2007YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Fontaine, 2010/2011YesNoYesYesNoNoUnclearNoYesNoYesYesNoUnclearFair
Fukuda, 2011YesYesYesYesYesNo (control) Yes (placebo)NoYesYesNoYesNoNoYesPoor
Garcia, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Giannotti, 2014YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoNoYesYesUnclearPoor
Gibson, 1985UnclearUnclearYesNoYesYesYesUnclearYesNoNo (21% vs. 6%)YesUnclearYesPoor
Gilbert, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
Giombini, 2011YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Goldby, 2006YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYes (>80% at 12 months)NoYesUnclearYesFair
Gowans, 2001UnclearUnclearYesNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Groessl, 2017YesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
Gudavalli, 2006YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesNoYesUnclearYesFair
Gur, 2004YesUnclearUnclearYesYesNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Gusi, 2006UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Haake, 2007YesYesYesYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Haas, 2014YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Harkapaa, 1989UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Hegedus, 2009YesUnclearUnclearUnclearYesYesUnclearUnclearYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Helminen, 2015YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Highland, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Hinman, 2014YesYesYesYes

Yes (vs. sham)

No (vs. )

Yes (vs. sham)

No (vs. )

YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes

Good - vs. sham

Fair - vs. no treatment

Ho, 2017YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesFair
Hoeksma, 2004YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Holroyd, 1991UnclearUnclearUnclearYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
Holroyd, 2001YesYesYesYesYes- medication, No-stressYesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Holsgaard-Larsen, 2017, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Hondras, 2009YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesFair
Huang, 2003YesYesYesYesUnclearNoUnclearYesYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
Huang, 2005a Arth & RheumYesYesYesYesUnclearNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Huang, 2005b, Archives PM&RYesYesYesYesUnclearNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Jensen, 2012/Wicksell 2013UnclearYesUnclearYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoYesYesNoUnclearFair
Jia, 2016YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Johnson, 2007YesYes (minimization)YesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Jousset, 2004UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Jubb, 2008YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Juhakoski, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoNo (PRO)/Yes (CRO)Yes/No (1st year 86%, 2nd year 58%)YesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Kankaanpaa, 1999UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Karatay, 2018YesYesNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Karlsson, 2015YesYesUnclearYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Karst, 2000UnclearUnclearUnclearNo*YesNoYesYesNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Kayiran, 2010UnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)UnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesPoor
Kayo, 2012YesYesYesNoNoNoNoUnclearYesNoYesYesYesUnclearFair
Kerr, 2003YesUnclearYesYesUnclearNoYesNoYesNoNoYesUnclearYesPoor
King, 2002YesunclearNoUnclearNoNoNoNoYesNoUnclearYesNoUnclearPoor
Lamb, 2010/2012YesYesYesYesNoNoUnclearNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Lambeek, 2010aYesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Lami, 2017YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesNoYesPoor
Lansdown, 2009YesYesYesYesNoNoUnclearYesYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Lansinger, 2007YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclear*YesNoNoNoUnclearNoPoor
Larsson, 2015YesYesYesYesNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)NoYesNoYesUnclearUnclearYesPoor
Lauche, 2016YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYes/No*YesYes/No**Yes/No**YesYesYesFair Tai chi vs. ; Poor Tai chi vs. Ex., Ex. vs.
Laufer, 2005NoNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
Li, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Liang, 2011YesYesUnclearYesYesNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Licciardone, 2013YesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Little, 2008YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Luciano, 2014, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Lumley, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Lund, 2008YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Lynch, 2012YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesNoYesYesYesFair
MacPherson, 2015/Essex, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Mannerkorpi, 2009YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesNoYesFair
Martin, 2006UnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesGood
Martin, 2012YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesNoYesPoor
Mat, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Mazloum, 2017UnclearUnclearNoYesNoNoYesUnclearYesUnclearYesYesNoYesPoor
Mazzuca, 2004YesYesYesUnclearYesYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
McCrae, 2019YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesFair
Messier, 2004YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Mist, 2018YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Miyamoto, 2013YesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Miyamoto, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Monticone, 2013YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Monticone, 2014YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Morone, 2009YesYesUnclearYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Morone, 2016YesYesUnclearYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Movahedi, 2017UnclearUnclearYesYesYesNoUnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesUnclearUnclearPoor
Nambi, 2014YesUnclearYesYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearUnclearFair
Nassif, 2011YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoNoYesUnclearUnclearPoor
Natour, 2015YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Nicholas, 1991 BehavUnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoUnclearUnclearYesNoUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Nicholas, 1992 Pain 1992;48:339–47UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoUnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
O’Moore, 2018YesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Osteras, 2014YesYesYesNoNoNoYesNoYesNoNoYesYesYesPoor
Pach, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Paolucci, 2015YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearFair
Pennix, 2001 (FAST)YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Pennix, 2002 (FAST)YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Pennix, 2002 (FAST)YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Perlman, 2012YesYesYesUnclearNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Poole, 2007Yes (minimization)Yes (minimization)YesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Quilty, 2003YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Quinn, 2008YesUnclearYesYesYesNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Redondo, 2004YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesNoYesPoor
Rejeski, 2002YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Rejeski, 2002YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Roche, 2007/2011YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesNoYesUnclearYesFair
Rosedale, 2014YesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
Rudolfsson, 2014YesUnclearUnclearYesNoNoYes/No*UnclearYesNoYesYesYesUnclearFair
Sahin, 2010YesYesYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesNoNoFair
Sanudo, 2010YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Sanudo, 2012UnclearUnclearNoYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Sanudo, 2015UnclearUnclearYesUnclearNoNoNoUnclearYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
Saper, 2017YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Saral, 2016YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Schimmel, 2009YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Schmidt, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes (vs. attention control)YesNoYesFair
Seferiadis, 2015YesYesYesYesNoNoYes/No*NoYesYesYesYesYesNoFair
Segal, 2015YesYesYesUnclearNoNoNoYesYesNo

Yes (3 months);

No (9 months)

YesYesYes

Fair (3 months);

Poor (9 months)

Sencan, 2004UnclearUnclearUnclearYesNoNoNoUnclearYes

Unclear (vs. placebo);

Yes (vs. paroxetine)

Unclear (vs. placebo);

No (vs. paroxetine)

YesNoYesPoor
Senna, 2011UnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesNoNoYesUnclearYesPoor
Sherman, 2005YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Sherman, 2009YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Sherman, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYeYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Somers, 2012YesYesYesYesNoNoYes/No (dataNoYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Soriano, 1998UnclearUnclearNoYesYesYesUnclearNoYesNoNoUnclearUnclearUnclearPoor
Stewart, 2007YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Strand, 2001UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Stukstette, 2013YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Suarez-Almazo, 2010YesYesYesYesYes - sham No - waitlistYes - shamYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYes

Good (sham);

Fair (waitlist)

Sullivan, 1998UnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoYesUnclearYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Tak, 2005YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNo/Yes (primary outcomes were patient reported and patient’sNoYesNoYesYesUnclearYesPoor
Tascioglu, 2004YesUnclearUnclearYesUnclearYesYesUnclearNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Tavafian, 2008UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoYesYesUnclearYesPoor
Tavola, 1992UnclearUnclearUnclearYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Teirlinck, 2016YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYes (3 month treatment period); No (booster sessions)YesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Thamsborg, 2005UnclearUnclearYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Thieme, 2006NoUnclearYesUnclearNoNoNoNoYesYesNoUnclearNoYesPoor
Thomas, 2006YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Thomas, 2002UnclearUnclearYesYesUnclearNoYesNoYesNoYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Thorstensson, 2005YesUnclearUnclearYesNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Tilbrook, 2011YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYes (see note at end of text)YesFair
Tomas-Carus, 2008, 2009UnclearUnclearNoUnclearNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Trock, 1994YesYesUnclearNoYesNoYesUnclearNoUnclearUnclearYesNoYesPoor
Turner, 1990UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
BEAM Trial Team, 2004YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
van der Roer, 2008YesYesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
van Eijk-Hustings, 2013YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYesUnclearFair
van Gordon, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
van Santen, 2002UnclearUnclearYesNoNoNoYes (CBO), No (PRO)UnclearYesYesNoYesUnclearYesPoor (all comparisons)
Vas, 2006YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNoUnclearFair
Vas, 2016YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesGood
Verkaik, 2014YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYesPoor
Viljanen, 2003YesYesYesNo*NoNoNoNo**YesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Villafaina, 2019UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Von Korff, 2005UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesUnclearYesFair
Waling, 2002UnclearUnclearYesNoNoNoNoUnclearYesNoYesYesNoYesPoor
Waller, 2017YesYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYesFair
Wang, 2009YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Wang, 2010YesYesYesNoNoNoYes (CBO) No (PRO)NoYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Wang, 2018YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYesYesYesFair
Weng, 2009YesYesYesUnclearUnclearNoYesYesYesYesNoYesNoYesPoor
White, 2004YesUnclearYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNoYesFair
Wigers, 1996YesUnclearYesYesNoNoNoUnclearYesNo

No (stress management vs. usual care and vs. exercise)

Yes (exercise vs. usual care)

YesUnclearYes

Poor (stress management vs. usual care and vs. exercise)

Fair (exercise vs. usual care)

Williams, 2002UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearNoNoNoUnclearYesYesYesYesNoUnclearPoor
Williams, 2005YesUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesFair
Williams, 2009UnclearUnclearYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesFair
Williamson, 2007YesYesYesYesNoNoYesUnclearYesNoNoYesNoYesPoor
Witt, 2005YesYesYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesYesFair
Yegin, 2017UnclearUnclearYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesPoor
Yildiz, 2015YesUnclearUnclearNoYesYesUnclearUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Yurtkuran, 2007YesUnclearYesYesYesNoYesUnclearYesYesYesYesNoYesFair
Zgierska, 2016YesYesYesNoNoNoUnclearNoYesYesYesYesYesYesPoor
Zhang, 2013YesUnclearYesUnclearYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesNoYesFair

Table E-2Quality assessment of crossover trial

Author, YearRandomizationConcealed Treatment AllocationIntention-To-Treat AnalysisIndependent or Blind AssessmentAppropriate Washout Period for ConditionAttrition ReportedAttrition AcceptableNumber Completing Period Reported; Attrition b/w Periods Acceptable (<10%)Results From First Phase Reported SeparatelyAccounting for Missing DataUse of Methods for Within-Subject Variation, Correlated DataAnalysis of Carryover EffectIs There a Registered or Published ProtocolAvoidance of Selective Outcomes ReportingRisk of Bias (Cochrane Back Group)
Paolucci, 2016UnclearUnclearYesYesYesYes

Yes - first period;

No - second period

YesYesNoYesNoYesYesPoor
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