Table 2

Summary of the evidence for sensory organ changes due to vertebral dysfunction, spinal adjustments or manipulation [The studies have been categorised as delivering spinal adjustment (A) or spinal manipulation (B) based on the reason authors give for thrusting on the spine]

  1. Studies that found no change in outcome measures have been highlighted in grey. EMG electromyography, HVLA high-velocity low-amplitude thrust, CSMC problems central segmental motor control problems