Thanks to Dr. Frank Painter for providing the following information.



Hubbard, DR, & Berkoff, GM "Myofascial trigger points show spontaneous needle EMG activity" Spine 1993; 18: 1803-1807




1. SF-36

Goertz, Christine M "Measuring functional health status in the chiropractic office using self-report questionnaires" Top in Clin Chiro 1994: 1(1): 51-59 QUESTIONNAIRE ON PAGE 81-3

Hawk, Cheryl "Update on the Research Network: Use of the SF-36 Health Survey (RAND-36)" Palmer J Res 1995; 2(2): 32-33

Stewart, A "The M.O.S. short form general health survey: Reliability and validity in a patient population" Medical Care 1988; 26(7): 724-

"Measuring results: The new importance of patient questionnaires" The Chiropractic Report 1992; 7(1): 1-6

2. Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Love, A "Chiropractic chronic LBP sufferers and self-report assessment methods. PART I: A reliability study of the visual analogue scale (VAS), the pain drawing and the McGill Pain Questionnaire" JMPT 1989; 12: 21-5

Osterbauer, Paul J "Users guide for the visual analogue scale" Activator Methods, Inc. Phoenix, Az, 602-224-0220

Price, Donald D "The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain" Pain 1983; 17 : 45-56

Wallace, Harry L. "The relationship of changes in cervical curvature to visual analog scale, neck disability index scores and pressure algometry with neck pain" Chiro: Jour of Chiro Res and Clin Invest 1994; 9(1): 19-23

3. Neck Disability Index (NDI)

Vernon, H "The Neck Disability Index (NDI): A study of reliability and validity"JMPT 1991; 14(7): 409-15

Wallace, Harry L. "The relationship of changes in cervical curvature to visual analog scale, neck disability index scores and pressure algometry with neck pain" Chiro: Jour of Chiro Res and Clin Invest 1994; 9(1): 19-23

4. Oswestry Low Back Pain

Fairbanks, J "The Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire" Physiotherapy 1980; 66: 271-

5. Other Questionnaires

Main, Chris J "The distress and risk assessment method: A simple patient classification to identify distress and evaluate the risk of poor outcome" Spine 1992; 17(1): 42-52

Main, Chris J "The modified somatic perception questionnaire" J Psychosom Res 1983; 27(6): 503-514

Melzack, R "The McGill Pain Questionnaire: Major properties and scoring methods" Pain 1975; 1: 277-99


1. Algometry

ALGOMETRICS INC. "The sLide algometer-Theory and practical use in patient care" UNPUBLISHED 1990 : A 12 page handout (Supplied w/ a new algometer from Activator)

Bovim, Gunnar "Cervicogenic headache, migraine, and tension-type headache. Pressure-pain threshold measurements" Pain 1992; 51: 169-73

Fischer, Andrew A "Pressure algometry over normal muscles: Standard values, validity, reproducibility of pressure threshold" Pain 1987; 30: 115-126

Hains, Francois "Association between primary dysmenorrhea and pain threshold at the thoracolumbar junction" FCER's International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, 1991; 106-9

Hsieh, J "Effect of chiropractic manipulation on the pain threshold of myofascial trigger point: A pilot study" FCER's International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, 1990; 359-63

Jensen, Kai "Quantification of tenderness by palpation and use of pressure algometer"Advances in Pain Res & Ther 1990; 17: 165-81

Reeves, John L "Reliability of the pressure algometer as a measure of myofascial trigger point sensitivity" Pain 1986; 24 : 313-321

Vernon, HT "Pressure pain threshold evaluation of the effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of chronic neck pain: A pilot study" JMPT 1990; 131 13-16



1. Psychosocial

Chan, Carl W "The pain drawing and Waddell's nonorganic physical signs in chronic low-back pain" Spine 1993; 18(13): 1717-1722

Milus, Thomas B "Somatization: Psychologic considerations in chiropractic practice" Top in Clin Chiro 1994: 1(1): 13-25

Waddell, Gordon "Nonorganic physical signs in low back pain" Spine 1980; 5(2): 117-125

Waddell, G "Assessment of severity in low back disorders" Spine 1984; 9(2): 204-208

Waddell, G "Chronic low-back pain, psychologic distress, and illness behavior"" Spine 1984; 9(2): 209-213

2. Psychophysical

Alaranta, H "Non-dynametric trunk performance tests: Reliability and normative data base" Scand J Rehab Med 1994; 26: 211-215

Donelson, Ronald "Pain response to sagittal end-range spinal motion: A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial (McKenzie protocol)" Spine 1991; 16(6): S206- S212

Donelson, Ronald "Centralization phenomenon: It's usefulness in evaluation and treating referred pain" Spine 1990; 15(3): 211-213

Rissanen, A & Alaranta, H "Isokinetic and non-dynamometric tests in low back pain patients related to pain and disability index" Spine 1994; 19(17): 1963-1967

Tunnell, Pamela W "Protocol for visual assessment: Postural evaluation of the muscular system through visual inspection"J Bodywork Movement Ther 1996; 1(1): 21-27

Yeomans, Steven G & Liebensen, Craig "Quantitative functional capacity evaluation: The missing link to outcomes assessment" Top Clin Chiro 1996; 3(1): 32-41 appendix "Outcomes assessment record, QFCE tests,etc on pages 84-89