Cephalalgia. 2006 (Jul); 26 (7): 820–830
Kienbacher C, Wöber C, Zesch HE, Hafferl-Gattermayer A, et. al
Department of Neuropsychiatry of Childhood and Adolescents,
Medical University of Vienna,
We performed a long-term follow-up examination in children and adolescents with migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in order to investigate the evolution of clinical features and headache diagnoses, to compare International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-I and ICHD-II criteria and to identify prognostic factors. We re-examined 227 patients (52.4% female, age 17.6 +/- 3.1 years) 6.6 +/- 1.6 years after their first presentation to a headache centre using identical semistructured questionnaires.
Of 140 patients initially diagnosed with migraine, 25.7% were headache free, 48.6% still had migraine and 25.7% had TTH at follow-up.
Of 87 patients with TTH, 37.9% were headache free, 41.4% still had TTH and 20.7% had migraine.
The number of subjects with definite migraine was higher in ICHD-II than in ICHD-I at baseline and at follow-up. The likelihood of a decrease in headache frequency decreased with a changing headache location at baseline (P < 0.0001), with the time between baseline and follow-up (P = 0.0019), and with an initial diagnosis of migraine (P = 0.014).
Female gender and a longer time between headache onset and first examination tended to have an unfavourable impact.
In conclusion, 30% of the children and adolescents presenting to a headache centre because of migraine or TTH become headache-free in the long-term. Another 20-25% shift from migraine to TTH or vice versa. ICHD-II criteria are superior to those of ICHD-I in identifying definite migraine in children and adolescents presenting to a headache centre. The prognosis is adversely affected by an initial diagnosis of migraine and by changing headache location, and it tends to be affected by an increasing time between headache onset and first presentation.