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Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care

By |August 5, 2013|Chiropractic Education, Evidence-based Medicine|

Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   J Evid Based Comp Altern Med. 2012 (Dec 28); 18 (1): 75-79

Ron LeFebvre, MA, DC, David Peterson, DC, and Mitchell Haas, MA, DC

University of Western States,
Portland, OR, USA.


Evidence-based practice has had a growing impact on chiropractic education and the delivery of chiropractic care. For evidence-based practice to penetrate and transform a profession, the penetration must occur at 2 levels. One level is the degree to which individual practitioners possess the willingness and basic skills to search and assess the literature. Chiropractic education received a significant boost in this realm in 2005 when the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded 4 chiropractic institutions R25 education grants to strengthen their research/evidence-based practice curricula. The second level relates to whether the therapeutic interventions commonly employed by a particular health care discipline are supported by clinical research. A growing body of randomized controlled trials provides evidence of the effectiveness and safety of manual therapies.


Introduction

The use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased dramatically during the past several decades. [1, 2] Estimates based on the 2002 National Health Interview Survey reveal that 62.1% of US adults used complementary and alternative medicine therapies during the previous year. [3] Chiropractic is the largest complementary and alternative medicine profession in the United States, with approximately 70 000 members, [4] and chiropractic services account for the greatest number of complementary and alternative medicine visits. [1] In 2002, approximately 7.4% of Americans consulted a chiropractor for treatment. [2] Chiropractic is a well-established part of the health care delivery system, included under Medicare and Medicaid laws, with worker’s compensation coverage in all 50 states. Insurance coverage for chiropractic is also quite extensive. Approximately 50% of health maintenance organizations and 75% of private health insurance plans cover chiropractic care.

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Clinical Biomechanics: Scoliosis

By |May 8, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Rehabilitation, Scoliosis|

Clinical Biomechanics: Scoliosis

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 13 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Clinical Biomechanics:
Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 13: Scoliosis

In traditional medicine, scoliosis is commonly ignored until gross cosmetic effects or signs of structural destruction are witnessed. In chiropractic, however, even minor degrees of distortion should be considered at the time of spinal analysis because of their subtle biomechanical and neurologic consequences, and to halt potential progression at an early stage. To give a better appreciation of these points, this chapter describes the general structural, examination, and biomechanical concerns that should be considered, along with the highlights of conservative therapy.


     GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


The Spinal Curves   [1-9]

A curved column has increased resistance to compression forces. This is just as true in the spine, as for a rib or long bone. Most authorities consider the spine to have four major curves: anteriorly convex curves at the cervical and lumbar areas and, anteriorly concave curves at the thoracic and sacral levels. Cailliet considers the coccyx a curve, but this curve is usually considered an extension of the sacral curve. A few authorities consider the atlanto-occipital junction as a separate anteriorly convex curve. Regardless, the spinal curves offer the vertebral column increased inflexibility and shock-absorbing capability while still maintaining an adequate degree of stiffness and stability between vertebral segments (Fig. 13.1).

      Structural vs Functional Curves

The adult thoracic and sacral anteriorly concave curves are firm structural arcs as the result of their vertebral bodies being shorter anteriorly than posteriorly. The normal kyphosis of the adult thoracic and sacral curves is quite similar to that of the fetal spine. This is not true for the anteriorly convex cervical and lumbar regions where the curves are essentially the result of their soft tissue wedge-shaped IVDs. It is for this reason that the cervical and lumbar curves readily flatten in the supine position, while the thoracic kyphosis reduces only a slight amount.

There is a clinical correlation of disc wedging to disc disease. Most disc lesions are found in the cervical and lumbar regions where the greatest degree of physiologic wedging occurs. This appears to be true in both hyperlordosis and an exceptionally flat cervical or lumbar curve.

      Effect of Bipedism

An adult discless spine would resemble that of the newborn. Since animals that walk on four legs and infants prior to assuming the erect position do not have the physiologic curves of the erect adult, it can be assumed that these curves are the result of bipedism. In the erect position, the lower lumbar area is especially subjected to considerable shearing stress. [10, 11]

      Overall Balance

Although the spine is often considered as the central pillar of the body, this is only true when the spine is viewed from the anterior or posterior aspect. When viewed laterally, the spine lies distinctly posterior to the thoracic body mass essentially because of the space-occupying heart (Fig. 13.2), It lies much more centrally in the cervical and lumbar regions. An abundance of body mass also lies anterior to the midline in the head, which must be held by erector and check ligament strength if a thoracic “hump” or a flattened cervical curve are to be avoided.

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Macquarie backs off from chiropractic

By |April 24, 2013|Chiropractic Education|

Source The Australian

Macquarie University has announced plans to offload its chiropractic teaching by 2015.

It said it would begin discussions with other “interested” higher education providers about taking over its chiropractic units and degrees, including academic staff and teaching facilities. Executive science dean Clive Baldock said his faculty wanted to concentrate on developing “recent major strategic investments” in research-intensive disciplines including biomedical science and engineering.

“Macquarie University has recently invested significantly in a postgraduate medical school and a state-of-the-art private hospital,” he said. “We naturally want to focus our efforts on supporting these initiatives with our teaching and research.” Professor Baldock issued a sales pitch to possible tenderers while acknowledging that the discipline didn’t meet Macquarie’s requirements “from a research-intensive perspective”.

“We believe our chiropractic degrees to be of the highest teaching quality, and they remain extremely popular with students,” he said.“We therefore believe the responsible thing to do is to begin discussions with other higher education providers who are keen to grow in this area.”

Sports Management: Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

By |April 23, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Chiropractic Technique, Clinical Decision-making, Education, Gait Analysis, Rehabilitation, Sports Management|

Sports Management:
Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 27 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Chiropractic Management of Sports and Recreational Injuries”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 27:   Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The lower leg, ankle, and foot work as a functional unit. Total body weight above is transmitted to the leg, ankle hinge, and foot in the upright position, and this force is greatly multiplied in locomotion. Thus the ankle and foot are uniquely affected by trauma and static deformities infrequently seen in other areas of the body.


     Injuries of the Leg


The most common injuries in this area are bruises, muscle strains, tendon lesions, postural stress, anterior and posterior compression syndromes, and tibia and fibula fractures. Bruises of the lower leg are less frequent than those of the thigh or knee, but the incidence of intrinsic strain, sprain, and stress fractures are much greater.

A continual program of running and jogging is typical of most sports. The result is often strengthening of the antigravity muscles at the expense of the gravity muscles — producing a dynamic imbalance unless both gravity and antigravity muscles are developed simultaneously. An anatomic or physiologic short leg as little as an eighth of an inch can affect a stride and produce an overstrain in long-distance track events.

Bruises and Contusions

The most common bruise of the lower extremity is that of the shin where disability may be great as the poorly protected tibial periosteum is usually involved. Skin splits in this area can be most difficult to heal. Signs of suppuration indicate referral to guard against periostitis and osteomyelitis.

Management.   Treat as any skin-bone bruise with cold packs and antibacterial procedures, and shield the area with padding during competitive activity. When long socks are worn, the incidence of shinbone injuries is reduced. An old but effective protective method in professional football that does not add weight is to place four or five sheets of slick magazine pages around the shin that are secured by a cotton sock which is covered by the conventional sock. A blow to the shin is reduced to about a third of its force as the paper slips laterally on impact.

      GASTROCNEMIUS CONTUSION

This is a common and most debilitating injury in contact sports. It is characterized by severe calf tenderness, abnormal muscle firmness of the engorged muscle, and inability to raise the heel during weight bearing.

Management.   Treat with cold packs, compression, and elevation for 24 hr. Follow with mild heat and contrast baths. Massage is contraindicated as it might disturb muscle repair. The danger of ossification is less in the calf than in the thigh, but management must incorporate precautions against adhesions.

      TRAUMATIC PHLEBITIS

Contusion to the greater saphenous vein may lead to rupture resulting in extensive swelling, ecchymosis, redness and other signs of local phlebitis. Tenderness will be found along the course of the vascular channel. During treatment, referral should be made upon the first signs of thrombosis.

Management.   Management is by rest, cold, compression, and elevation for at least 24 hr. Later, progressive ambulation, mild heat, and contrast baths should be utilized. Progressive exercises may begin in 4-6 days. When competitive activity is resumed, the area should be provided extra protection.

      NERVE CONTUSIONS (more…)

Clinical Disorders and the Sensory System

By |April 11, 2013|Chiropractic Education, Diagnosis, Education, Evaluation & Management, General Health, Health Promotion, Neurology, Orthopedic Tests, Radiculopathy, Spinal Manipulation|

Clinical Disorders and the Sensory System

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 4 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Basic Principles of Chiropractic Neuroscience”

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 8: Clinical Disorders and the Sensory System

This chapter describes those sensory mechanisms, joint signals, and abnormal sensations (eg, pain, thermal abnormalities) that have particular significance within clinical diagnosis. The basis and differentiation of pain are described, as are the related subjects of trigger points and paresthesia. The chapter concludes with a description of the neurologic basis for the evaluation of the sensory system and the sensory fibers of the cranial nerves.


     THE ANALYSIS OF PAIN
     IN THE CLINICAL SETTING


Although all pain does not have organic causes, there is no such thing as “imagined” pain. Pain that can be purely isolated as a structural, functional, or an emotional effect is rare. More likely, all three are superimposed upon and interlaced with each other in various degrees of status. This is also true for neural, vascular, lymphatic, and hormonal mechanisms.

Common Causes of Pain and Paresthesia

The common causes of pain and paresthesia are:

(1) obvious direct trauma or injury;

(2) reflex origins in musculoskeletal lesions, which deep pressure often exaggerates, such as trigger areas;

(3) peripheral nerve injury (eg, causalgia), which results in an intense burning superficial pain;

(4) the presence of nerve inflammations and degeneration of the peripheral or CNS, which frequently cause other changes indicative of such lesions; (more…)

The Horizontal Neurologic Levels

By |April 8, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Clinical Decision-making, Diagnosis, Education, Evaluation & Management, Health Promotion, Neurology|

The Horizontal Neurologic Levels

The Chiro.Org Blog


We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 4 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Basic Principles of Chiropractic Neuroscience”

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.


Chapter 4: The Horizontal Neurologic Levels
and Related Clinical Concerns


This chapter describes the basic functional anatomy and clinical considerations of the horizontal aspects of the supratentorial, posterior fossa, spinal, and peripheral levels of the nervous system.


     OVERVIEW


The reader should keep in mind that the various aspects of the nervous system as described in this manual (eg, longitudinal and horizontal systems) are only reference guides that are visualizations of a patient’s nervous system in the upright position. They can be likened to the lines of longitude and latitude on a globe of the earth.

Such systems do not exist physically, but they do serve as excellent mental grid-like tools (viewpoints) during localization and areas in which and from which relationships can be described. For example, although the longitudinal systems take a general vertical course within the spinal column there are numerous alterations and they actually become horizontal when decussating. While the horizontal levels are spatially placed in and extend from the CNS in a general segmental manner, they soon take a widely diffuse course as they project toward their destinations. Thus, references to longitudinal and horizontal levels are just general viewpoints.

It is helpful for study purposes to isolate the body into certain systems, as described above, organize systems into organs, organs into tissues, tissues into cells, and cells into their components. However, we should keep in mind that, physically and functionally, there is only one integrated body and it is more than the sum of its parts. And even the body cannot be thought of as truly separate from its external environment. Although we may do this for study purposes, it is a limited viewpoint.

(more…)