Rehabilitation Articles by
Craig Liebenson, D.C.

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:

Dr. Liebenson is the author of the foremost text on rehab:   Rehabilitation of the Spine: A Practitioner's Manual.   The second edition includes a DVD with assessment and practical techniques.   Enjoy the following articles, as they spell out the paradigm of rehabilitation.   You may also enjoy his personal website:   LA Sports and Spine Center.

Patient Satisfaction Cost-Effectiveness Safety of Chiropractic

Exercise + Chiropractic Chiropractic Rehab Integrated Care

Headache Adverse Events Disc Herniation

Chronic Neck Pain Low Back Pain Whiplash Section

Conditions That Respond Alternative Medicine Approaches to Disease


Select from these categories:

   Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) Articles

   Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (JBMT) Articles

   Additional Selected Journal Articles

A —   Introduction

B —   Integrating Manipulation & Rehabilitation

C —   Functional Anatomy

D —   Outcomes Management & Quality Assurance

E —   Spinal Stabilization Training

F —   Chiropractic Rehabilitation Education

G —   The Regional Approach

H —   The Prague School

I —   Patient Education

J —   The Relationship of Pain & Dysfunction

K —   Biopsychosocial Issues


Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

   Rehabilitation and Chiropractic Practice
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996 (Feb);   19 (2):   134-140

   Palpation-- Problems and Implications
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993 (Nov-Dec);   16 (9):   586-590

   Pathogenesis of Chronic Back Pain
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992 (Jun);   15 (5):   299-308

   Active Muscular Relaxation Techniques ~ Part II: Clinical Application
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990 (Jan);   13 (1):   2-6

   Active Muscular Relaxation Techniques ~ Part I: Basic Principles and Methods
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989 (Dec);   12 (6):   446-454

   Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Diagnosis and Conservative Management
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988 (Dec);   11 (6):   493-499

   Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies Articles   

   Self-management: Patient Section. Training For Speed
Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 2009 (Oct);   13 (4):   362-3

   McKenzie Self-treatments for Sciatica
Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 2005;   9:   40-42

   Spinal Stabilization Training
Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 1997;   1 (2):   87-90 ~ FULL TEXT

Other Selected Journals

   The Active Straight Leg Raise Test and Lumbar Spine Stability
PM R. 2009 (Jun);  1 (6):  530-535

   Endurance Times for Low Back Stabilization Exercises: Clinical Targets
For Testing and Training From A Normal Database

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 (Aug);   80 (8):   941-944 ~ FULL TEXT

   Outcomes Assessment in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Man Ther. 1997 (May);   2 (2):   67-74

   Functional Capacity Evaluation and Chiropractic Case Management
Top Clin Chiro 1996;   3 (3):   15-25 ~ FULL TEXT

   Quantitaive functional Capacity Evaluation:
The Missing Link to Outcomes Assessment

Top Clin Chiro 1996;   3 (1):   32-43 ~ FULL TEXT

   A)   Introduction   

   A Key Link in the Locomotor System: The Upper-Thoracic Spine
June 17, 2011

   The Role of Reassessment: The Clinical Audit Process
July 1, 2010

   Building Speed and Agility
June 3, 2009

   Marketing a Spine Practice
September 23, 2008

   The Importance of Functional Fitness
February 26, 2008

   Lateral Hip-Pelvic Instability and Knee Problems
December 17, 2007

   What Is Evidence-Based Rehabilitation?
June 4, 2007

   The Clinical Audit Process and Functional Reactivation
April 9, 2007

   Does Chiropractic Practice Have a Future?
August 15, 2006

   Can the Chiropractic Profession Find a Road Map to Cultural Authority
From Physical Therapists?

April 10, 2006

   The Neurodevelopmental Basis for Spine Stability
February 13, 2006

   Chiropractic Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Dizziness
December 18, 1995

   How to Develop and Progress a Patient Self-Management Program
August 14, 2005

   Are You Turned Off by Evidence-Based Care?
February 12, 2005

   Why Some Patients Don't Get Better With Traditional Chiropractic Care,
and How Rehabilitation Can Help

November 3, 2003

   Functional Reactivation: "Patient-Centered Care"
February 25, 2002

   Hinges of Practice: How to Shift Paradigms
March 26, 2001

   How Can Rehabilitation Help You Get New Patients and Keep Them?
October 18, 1999

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   B)   Integrating Manipulation & Rehabilitation   

   Clinical Challenges in Functional Reactivation
July 14, 2003

   The Purpose of Spinal Rehabilitation:
Integration of Active and Passive Care

April 5, 1999
This article mentions the appropriate CPT codes and their prices for rehab services.   This is a very useful document!

   The Rehabilitation Model Embraces a Revolution
May 3, 1999

   The Back Pain Revolution, Part One:
The Biopsychosocial and Biomechanical Models

December 14, 1998

   Part II:   Evaluation
January 12, 1999

   Part III:   Treatment
February 8, 1999

   Part IV:   A Practical Approach
March 8, 1999

   What Is Chiropractic Rehabilitation?
July 29, 1996

   Rehabilitation: the New Paradigm
March 27, 1995

   A Changing Paradigm: The Biopsychosocial Model
August 25, 1997

   The Continuum of Care from Passive to Active Care
June 3, 1996

   The Role of Manipulation in Rehabilitation
July 28, 1997

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   C)   Functional Anatomy   

   The Neurodevelopmental Basis for Spine Stability
February 13, 2006

   Mid-Thoracic Dysfunction:
A Key Perpetuating Factor of Pain in the Locomotor System

September 12, 2001

   What Is the Mechanism of Injury for the Low Back? How Is Low Back Injury Produced?
April 17, 2000

   Functional Anatomy:
Rehabilitation Implications

February 9, 1998

   Functional Anatomy and Respiration
March 9, 1998

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   D)   Outcomes Management & Quality Assurance   

   Documentation of Physical Capacity: It's Purpose in Rehabilitation
April 3, 2000

   Outcomes Assessment:
How to Satisfy the Insurance Industry with Time-Efficient Documentation

January 12, 2000

   Recent Questions on Stabilization Training and Evidence-Based Care
September 20, 1999

   How Do I Justify the Medical Necessity of My Care?

   Part I: Overview
May 17, 1999

   Part II: The Roland-Morris Questionnaire
June 14, 1999

   Where Are Back Pain Dollars Headed: Do You Want to Know?
October 5, 1998

   Yellow Flags: Early Identification of Risk Factors of Chronicity in Acute Patients
June 29, 1998

   Yellow Flags Questionnaire for Early Identification of Risk Factors of Chronicity
July 27, 1998

   Do You Want to Know How to Defend Appropriate Charges?
January 14, 1997

   Can I Defend My Care in Testimony, Deposition, or Insurance Appeal?
August 11, 1997

   Is Managed Care Our Enemy?
May 31, 1997

   Benchmarking -- Chiropractic Care and Quality Assurance in the 21st Century
September 12, 1995

   The Chiropractic Rehabilitation Specialist and Quality Care
August 15, 1995

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   E)   Spinal Stabilization Training   

   What's All the Buzz About Spinal Stability? Part One:
Biomechanics and Neurophysiology

June 3, 2004
The concepts of stability and instability are integral to modern musculoskeletal care. According to Panjabi, three subsystems work together to maintain spine stability: 1 the central nervous subsystem (control), an osteoligamentous subsystem (passive), and a muscle subsystem (active). He says: "The neural subsystem receives information from the transducers, determines specific requirements for spinal stability, and causes the active subsystem to achieve the stability goal."

   What's All the Buzz About Spinal Stability? Part Two:
Assessment and Training

August 16, 2004
Reactivating spine pain patients is a key to early recovery from acute and subacute episodes, 9, 13 prevention of recurrences, 8 and treatment of chronic pain. 10 Part one of this series reviewed the biomechanics of spinal instability and simple preventive measures patients can take to spare their tissues from repetitive strain. 11 This article will present the basic stages of a spine stability "core" exercise program.

   Determining What Exercise to Prescribe
November 4, 2002

   Are We Restoring Function?
August 16, 2002

   Sensory-Motor Training, Part I
April 23, 2001

   Part II
       June 18, 2001

   Recovery from Low Back Injury: The Key Role of Rehabilitation
November 15, 1999

   Safe Back Workouts, Part One: How to Progress Patients with Exercises
September 21, 1998

   Part II: Troubleshooting
       November 16, 1998

   Simple and Inexpensive Active Care in Your Office: The Spinal Stabilization System
April 7, 1997

   Clinical Trial of Spinal Stabilization Training
May 4, 1998

   Spinal Instability and Pain: Is There a Connection?
Dec 15, 1997

   Spinal Stabilization Exercises: The Low Cost Solution to Exercising Your Patients
April 24, 1995

   Indications for Motor Control/Stabilization Exercises
October 21, 1996

   Propriosensory Methods for Pelvic Stabilization
July 17, 1995

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   F)   Chiropractic Rehabilitation Education   

   The Challenge of Teaching Rehabilitation to Chiropractors
April 20, 1998

   Chiropractic Rehabilitation Around the World
November 17, 1997

   The Delphi Process and Chiropractic Rehabilitation
September 1, 1996

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   G)   The Regional Approach   

   Core Training: The Importance of the Diaphragm
August 13, 2007

   Sacroiliac Dysfunction and Lumbopelvic Instability
August 24, 1998

   Temporomandibular and Orofacial Disorders: A Functional Perspective
May 31, 1998

   Rehabilitation of Lower Extremity Disorders
January 1, 1997

   Faulty Respiration: An Often Overlooked Cause of Pain
March 10, 1997

   Headache in the Whiplash Patient
May 22, 1995

   The C2/C3 Joint and Neck Pain
February 12, 1996

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   H)   The Prague School   

   A Moment of Silence for Vladimir Janda, Dr.Sc., MD
January 14, 2003
Professor Vladimir Janda passed away November 25, 2002. His contributions to musculoskeletal health care are immeasurable. He changed our thinking - how to see beyond a muscle's strength or weakness - and to identify how the body compensates in often subtle ways to maintain stability. His teaching was a labor of love for which he sacrificed everything. Even as a devastating postpolio syndrome took its hold on him, he refused to slow down. His stature and the resonance of his message remains clearer than ever.

   Identification and Treatment of Muscular Chains
August 23, 1999

   Muscular Imbalance: An Update
July 26, 1999

   The Czech School of Manual Medicine: Studying with Lewit and Janda
November 18, 1996

   Assessment and Treatment of Functional Pathology of the Motor System
November 20, 1995

   An Update on the Functional Pathology of the Motor System
August 15, 1996

   Faulty Movement Patterns as a Cause of Articular Dysfunction
February 10, 1997

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   I)   Patient Education   

   The Report of Findings from a Biopsychosocial Context
June 28, 1999

   Brugger's "Sterno-Symphyseal" Syndrome
Oct 20, 1997: 22

   Creating a Healthy Work Environment: Ergonomic Advice for Our Patients
September 23, 1996

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   J)   The Relationship of Pain & Dysfunction   

   Pain, Activity Limitation, and Dysfunction:
How Rehabilitation Can Help

January 15, 1996

   Rehabilitation: Is it for Acute Pain?
January 12, 1998

   Principles of Rehabilitation:
There Are Both Peripheral and Central Reactions to Pain

May 5, 1997

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   K)   The Biopsychosocial Issues   

   What to Do about "Yellow Flags"
November 30, 2002
On May 1-3, 2003, the World Federation of Chiropractic's 7th Biennial Congress will host a preeminent European leader in musculoskeletal medicine, Professor Stephen Linton. He is an expert in psychosocial aspects of back and neck pain patients, and has pioneered the identification of risk factors of chronicity and preemptive reactivation treatments with a cognitive-behavioral emphasis. This article will summarize the impact of psychosocial factors on prediction of patient prognosis, and how patients with such factors can be appropriately managed.

   The Modern Report of Findings:
The Role of Reactivation

December 1, 2001
Musculoskeletal pain patients in general, and LBP patients in particular, require an approach that addresses the physical (biological) and psychosocial dimensions of their problems. This modern approach is called "biopsychosocial" (BPS), in that the total patient is our subject. Rather than focusing on structural causes and cures, this new paradigm emphasizes the goal of maintaining or restoring function. Such an approach is of value, regardless of the pathoanatomic diagnosis.

   How to Shift LBP Paradigms: The "Hinges" of Practice
March 26, 2001
Specialists in the management of spinal disorders have seen tremendous changes in the last decade. While the low back pain (LBP) problem has been acknowledged as an epidemic, a consensus has gradually emerged as to why this has happened and what can be done about it . An overemphasis on the simplistic biomedical approach of identifying and treating the structural cause of pain has led to excesses in diagnostic testing, bed rest, narcotic analgesics, and surgery (Waddell). Meanwhile, an underemphasis on illness behavior has led to an under-utilization of functional (re-activation advice, manipulation and exercise) and cognitive-behavorial approaches (Feuerstein).

   The State of the Art: "Evidence-Based Care" From Guidelines to Practice:
What Is the New Benchmark?

August 6, 2000
"Acute low back pain" is the number one patient complaint that leads to chiropractic visits. Our treatment should have as its goal the maintenance or resumption of normal functional activities. Chiropractic appropriately emphasizes the role of manipulation in reducing activity intolerances. Other "tools of the trade" include improved psychosocial attitudes or coping skills, and stabilization training through activity modification advice or exercise.

   Part II ~ The Biopsychosocial Approach
       October 2, 2000
      You may also want to down load the Psychosocial Yellow Flags Screening Questionnaire.

   Part III
       November 30, 2000
       Diagnosis of structural pathology does not adequately guide treatment decision-making. Disc bulges are present in 52% of asymptomatics.1 Surprisingly, the larger the disc herniation the more likely nerve root compression is to spontaneously resolve.2 If diagnosis of structural pathology does not consistently correlate with symptoms, what evaluation can guide our treatment decisions? Evaluation of dysfunction is essential for figuring out what is causing pain in the locomotor system. This is called the "sports medicine approach." Its main emphasis is in identifying and treating the deconditioning syndrome (see Table 1). Athletes know that functional restoration is the key to return to competition, and that diagnosis of tissue injury or pathology is only a starting point.

   Part IV
       January 1, 2001
      Active care is a proven part of the conservative care armamentarium for neuromusculoskeletal disorders. The first three parts of this series have described the importance of evidence-based care, the psychosocial aspects of care, and the biomechanical aspects of care. This fourth and final part summarizes the basic "tools of the trade" for anyone wishing to incorporate active care into their practice. These are the tools that drive the integration of active care into chiropractic.
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