The Burden of Chronic Low Back Pain: Clinical
Comorbidities, Treatment Patterns, and Health
Care Costs in Usual Care Settings
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 (May 15); 37 (11): E668–677
Relative to controls, patients with CLBP had a greater comorbidity burden including a significantly higher (P < 0.0001) frequency of musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions and common sequelae of pain such as depression (13.0% vs. 6.1%), anxiety (8.0% vs. 3.4%), and sleep disorders (10.0% vs. 3.4%). Pain-related pharmacotherapy was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) among patients with CLBP including opioids (37.0% vs. 14.8%; P < 0.0001), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (26.2% vs. 9.6%; P < 0.0001), and tramadol (8.2% vs. 1.2%; P < 0.0001). Prescribing of "adjunctive" medications for treating conditions associated with pain (i.e., depression, anxiety, and insomnia) was also significantly greater (P < 0.0001) among patients with CLBP; 36.3% of patients received combination therapy. Health care costs were significantly higher in the CLBP cohort (P < 0.0001), reflecting greater resource utilization. Total direct medical costs were estimated at $8386 ± $17,507 in the CLBP group and $3607 ± $10,845 in the control group; P < 0.0001).