Author: Virgil Seutter
Date:     October 8, 1997
Parent Node:


1.0   Prologue

1.1 Phillips R. Philosophy and chiropractic divisions and directions. J Chiropractic Humanities, 1995;5:1;2-7.

1.3. Self Organization. Principia Cybernetica Web.

1.3. Kimmel CB, Ballard WW, Kimmel SR, Ullmann B, Schilling TF.  Stages of Embryonic Development of the Zebrafish. Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403; *Department of Biology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755

2.0   Holism: An Anthropological Concept Applied to Medicine

2.1. The Brunel M.A. in Medical Anthropology.

2.1. Suzanne BF. Plato and His Dialogues. Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Essays on Ancient Greece.

2.1. Plato.

2.1. Holistic Medicine. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.

2.1. Rogers AM. Holistic concepts of health and disease.

2.2. Campbell J. The Mythic Dimension: Selected Essays.

2.2a. Campbell J, Moyers B. The power of myth. New York. Doubleday, 1988.

2.2b. "It is the fact that mortality is an emergent phenomenon, one that is dependent upon "intent and design." Comment: The metaphysical implications of mortality as an emergent phenomenon could be easily misconstrued. The recurrent use of "intent and design" is not intended to underscore the metaphysical nature of man's mortal nature, nor consciousness as a discussion of free will, but to reveal some starting point in the search for a neuro cognitive relationship to biological function. What is observed in the phenomenon of life is "form." It is, in essence, the "design" of the organism that manifests as the "intent" of the organism in fulfilling...whatever purpose he might imagine. A chiropractic premise that stresses "structure" as related to "function" has not been able to find tools for inquiry that might reveal the underlying nature of this relationship. While chiropractic research has satisfied inquiry into the intrinsic nature of the subluxation complex, the possibility that a more global approach is needed, one that evaluates functional changes in structural relationships may require the use of computational models for inquiry. How this is done is yet to be determined. This merely represents a starting point in the discussion.

3.0.  Holism: From Myth to Mysticism and Science Caught In Between

3.2  Stahlman S. Defining Mysticism: Commentary on William James' "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and "A Suggestion about Mysticism." 1992.

3.3. The Gaia Hypothesis - Lovelock & Margulis - Introduction.

3.3. Abram D. The Perceptual Implications of Gaia.

4.0.  Holism: Terminology and Culture: Defining the Phenomenon

4.1  THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES by Charles Darwin 1859.

4.1  Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908): On the rays emitted by phosphorescence.

4.1  Albert Einstein.

4.1  Sir Issac Newton (1643-1727).

4.2. Holism.

4.2. Holistic Method.

4.2  Comments on "Complexity and the Future of Science."

4.4.  "The White Man's Burden" and Its Critics By Jim Zwick, Syracuse University

4.4. The Way To Peace: Mahatma Gandhi's Novniolent Revolution with links. Beck Index.

4.5. From One to 50,000: The Evolution of a Profession from the Chiropractic Centenial Foundation.

4.5 The Association for the History of Chiropractic: Preserving the Legacy of the Profession by Mildred L. Kimbrough, B.S., D.C.

5.0.  Holism and Complexity: Cybernetics and Systems Theory

5.2  What is Systems Theory. Heylighen F.,  Joslyn C. 

5.2. Ludwig von Bertalanffy 1901-1972. R511 Instructional Technology Foundations: Historical Timelines Project.

5.2. von Bertalanffy L. General systems theory. New York: George Braziller; 1988.

5.3. Cybernetics and the Integration of Knowledge. Heylighen F.

5.3  Entropy on the World Wide Web. Chris Hillman. Shannon's Information Theory.

5.4. Comments on "Complexity and the Future of Science."

6.0.  Is it Biomedicine or InfoMedicine?

6.0  Comments are based upon the following source:  Foss L, Rothenberg K. The second medical revolution: from biomedicine to infomedicine. Boston: New Science Library, 1987. The authors examine the role of alternative medicine in relation to the established medical paradigm. The "insurgents" are those groups that portray a countermovement against the medical model. The authors recognize the alternatives to the medical model as "holistic, behavioral, and environmental medicine." The ineffectual nature of countermovements to challenge medicine is due to the failure "to offer distinct laws and premises" that are based upon scientific principles mandating an approach to disease causation. And, disease causation that "encompasses all significant etiological factors" must demonstrate an effectual response along scientific parameters.  Part of this failure to undermine foundational principles of biomedicine is the nature of the biomedical legacy. This legacy has developed its own vocabulary in which certain presuppositions are reflected "in such content terms as disease, cure, system, and cause." In essence, any ability to establish laws, premises that challenge the reigning paradigm (biomedicine), must "overcome the embeded bias of the language."

6.1.  Paradigm.

6.1. Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

7.0  Holism, Chiropractic, and the Philosophy of Science

7.1  The Placebo Effect

7.1.  A synopsis is provided on Jamison's article. Comments are provided as an evaluation. Source: Jamison JR. Chiropractic holism: accessing the placebo effect. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1994;17;339-451.

7.1.1. The placebo effect. The skeptic's dictionary.

7.1.1. The placebo response. HomeArts.

7.1.2. Jamison includes the observation that much of the effects of manual therapy (and physiotherapy) can be attributed "to nonspecific (placebo) effects." Source for this statement is based on the following source: Koes BW, Bouter LM, Van Mameren H, Essers AH, Verstegen GM, Hofhuizen DM, Houben JP, Knipschild PG. The effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy and treatment by the general practitioner for nonspecific back and neck complaints: a randomized clinical trial. Spine 1992;17:28-35.

7.12. Foss L, Rothenberg K. The second medical revolution: from biomedicine to infomedicine. Boston: New Science Library, 1987.

7.2  Holism: The Contextual Nature of Manual Methods

7.2.  Comments are based upon the following article: Mootz R. The contextual nature of manual methods: challenges of the paradigm. J Chiropractic Humanities. 1995;5;28-40. This article examines the contextual nature of manual methods and the difficulty in obtaining scientific validation and/or consensus. Opportunities, at least for Mootz, appear in the nature of emerging technologies and the nature of investigative strategies. Innovation in these areas may be "conducive to greater recognition of the importance of the contextual nature of manual methods."

7.2.1  Black D. Fine Tuning: The promise of Contextual Healing. Springville Utah; Tapestry Press, 1991.
7.2.1  Black D. Inner Wisdom: The Challenge of Contextual Healing. Springville Utah; Tapestry Press, 1990.

7.2.3.  Fuzzy logic background.

7.2.3. What Is A "Clinical Trial"?

7.2.3. Critical Assessment Reference Page. Contributions from members of the Chiropractic Science/Research Listserv. Courtesy of Douglas W. Smith, D.C., Sheelah R. Smith, L.Ac., Health and Fitness Information. Provides a checklist for clinical trial evaluation.

7.2.4.  Recent trends in personality and related fields.

7.2.4. Evidence Based Medicine.

8.0  Sorting Out the Myth from the Mysticism

8.2.  Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

8.2.   Keating J. Commentary: belief in science and medicine (letter). J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991;14;437-438.

8.3.  Chiropractic theory.  The skeptic's dictionary.

8.5  René Descartes (1596-1650)

8.5  René Descartes (1596-1650)

8.5  Dualism

8.5.  A Computational Foundation for the Study of Cognition. David J. Chalmers. Department of Philosophy University of California.

8.5  Penrose R. The emperor's new mind: concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics. New York; Penguin Books, 1989.

8.5  Review of The Emperor's New Mind by Roger Penrose. This review appeared in Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 1990 October.

8.5  The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics by Roger Penrose. Reviewed by Jenny Monesson. 1996.

8.5  Self-Organization.

8.5  Deterministic.

8.5  Information System.

8.1  Chiropractic Philosophy: Communicating an Idea

8.1.3.  Pagels H. The dreams of reason: the computer and the rise of the sciences of complexity. New York; Bantam, 1989.

8.1.3. Review of ``The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity'' by Heinz R. Pagels. Melanie Mitchell. In Bulletin of the Santa Fe Institute, Entire review  (in postscript).

8.1.3.  Dualism. The skeptic's dictionary.

8.1.4  Innate Intelligence. INTELLIGENCE.

8.1.4   Vitalism.  EQUIFINALITY   TELEOLOGY  

8.1.4. Metaphorical.

8.1.4  Calvin WH, Ojemann GA. Conversations with Neil's Brain: The Neural Nature of Thought & Language. Addison-Wesley, 1994.

8.2.   Chiropractic Theory: An Incomplete Explanation...or Misinterpreting the Idea

8.2.1.  Chiropractic Philosophy for the 21st Century. Stephen R. Seater, CAE Executive Director. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research.       

8.2.1.  The Subluxation Complex: A Literature Review. Deb Callahan, M.A. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research.

8.2.3a  Nansel D, Szlazak M. Somatic dysfunction and the phenomenon of visceral disease simulation: a probable explanation for the apparent effectiveness of somatic therapy in patients presumed to be suffering from true visceral disease. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995;18;379-97.

8.2.3b  McCrea DA. Can sense be made of spinal interneuron circuits? In: Harnard S., ed. "Behavioral and Brain Sciences." New York: Cambridge Univ Press. 1992;15;633-43.

8.2.3c.  Osborn CE, Poppele RE. Parallel distributed network characteristics of the DSCT. J Neurophysiol. 1992;68;1100-12.

8.2.4a.  Neveu PJ. Asymmetrical brain modulation of the immune response. In: Purpura DP, ed. "Brain Research Reviews." London: Elsevier. 1992;17;101-7.

8.2.4b.  Nilsson C, Lindval-Axelsson M. Neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms in the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system. In: Purpura DP, ed. "Brain Research Reviews." London: Elsevier. 1992;17;109-38.

8.2.4c.  Edelman GM. Brilliant air, brilliant fire: on the matter of the mind. USA: Basic Books, 1992.

8.2.6a.  Silent Ischemia as a Central Problem..., Annals 1 Jun 96. Neuroscience Web Search.

8.2.6b.  Siddall PJ, Cousins MJ. Spine update: spinal pain mechanisms. Spine. 1997;22:1;98-104.

Further Reading

History of Western Biomedicine

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