All About Chiropractic

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
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Articles About Chiropractic

Chiro.Org Archival Material

Primary Care 2002 (Jun); 29 (2): 419–437 ~ FULL TEXT

Chiropractic is now more than a century old, and it is licensed throughout the United States and Canada and recognized in more than 60 countries worldwide. Doctors of Chiropractic receive training that is focused on the treatment of NMS conditions through manual and physical procedures, such as manipulation, massage, exercise, and nutrition. Most patients present to chiropractors with low back pain, neck pain, whiplash, and headaches. Numerous studies and expert panel reviews have supported the use of chiropractic and manipulation for these complaints. Satisfaction with chiropractic care for low back pain typically is good. Chiropractic, in general, offers safe and cost-effective procedures for selected musculoskeletal problems.

Mixed Methods Systematic Review of the Literature Base
Exploring Working Alliance in the Chiropractic Profession

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2022 (Sep 2); 30 (1): 35 ~ FULL TEXT

The qualitative synthesis suggests that chiropractic care can be considered as a prolonged change process in which collaborative working relationships between patients and chiropractors are especially important. At the start of care, a patient who seeks help to change their circumstances and a chiropractor whose role is that of the change-agent begin a treatment journey together. Strong working alliance (WA) can facilitate the change process ensuring its cooperative nature: our synthesis related patients’ and chiropractors’ experiences of therapeutic relationships to the role of the three features proposed by Bordin [11]: agreement on the goals of care, collaboration on the treatment plan, and the establishment of a bond. For instance, the quantitative synthesis shows there might be a mismatch between patients’ and chiropractors’ expectations about what patients’ role in the treatment journey should be. [36] Second, agreement on the treatment plan should be reached: comprehensive instructions of what is required from the patient can promote a proactive approach to care by shaping patients’ beliefs about their own capability (self-efficacy) to adhere to the treatment plan. [61]

Attitudes Towards Chiropractic: A Repeated Cross-
sectional Survey of Canadian Family Physicians

BMC Family Practice 2021 (Sep 15); 22 (1): 188 ~ FULL TEXT

Although generally positive, Canadian family physicians’ attitudes towards chiropractic range from very positive to extremely negative, and most physicians acknowledge that practice diversity within the chiropractic profession presents a barrier to interprofessional collaboration. Efforts to improve relations could include providing evidence-based information on chiropractic during medical training, and increased opportunities for family physicians and chiropractors to interact.

Comparison of First-year Grade Point Average and
National Board Acores Between Alternative
Admission Track Students in a Chiropractic
Program who Took or Did Not Take
Preadmission Science Courses

J Chiropractic Education 2020 (Mar); 34 (1): 4-7 ~ FULL TEXT

Our study indicated that for alternative admission track program (AATP) students, there was a statistically significant difference in a composite NBCE part 1 score between students who had and had not taken general chemistry 1 before admission. There were no differences in first-year GPA between AATP students who had and had not taken undergraduate chemistry and A&P courses.

Patients Receiving Chiropractic Care in a
Neurorehabilitation Hospital: A Descriptive Study

J Multidiscip Healthc. 2018 (May 3); 11: 223–231 ~ FULL TEXT

Patient mean (SD) age (n=27) was 42.8 (13) years, ranging from 20 to 64 years. Males (n=18, 67%) and those of white race/ethnicity (n=23, 85%) comprised the majority. Brain injury (n=20) was the most common admitting condition caused by trauma (n=9), hemorrhage (n=7), infarction (n=2), and general anoxia (n=2). Three patients were admitted for cervical SCI, 1 for ankylosing spondylitis, 1 for traumatic polyarthropathy, and 2 for respiratory failure with encephalopathy. Other common comorbid diagnoses potentially complicating the treatment and recovery process included myospasm (n=13), depression (n=11), anxiety (n=10), dysphagia (n=8), substance abuse (n=8), and candidiasis (n=7). Chiropractic procedures employed, by visit (n=641), included manual myofascial therapies (93%), mechanical percussion (83%), manual muscle stretching (75%), and thrust manipulation (65%) to address patients with spinal-related pain (n=15, 54%), joint or regional stiffness (n= 14, 50%), and extremity pain (n=13, 46%). Care often required adapting to participant limitations or conditions. Such adaptations not commonly encountered in outpatient settings where chiropractic care is usually delivered included the need for lift assistance, wheelchair dependence, contractures, impaired speech, quadriplegia/paraplegia, and the presence of feeding tubes and urinary catheters.   Patients suffered significant functional limitations and comorbidity resulting in modifications to the typical delivery of chiropractic care. Chiropractic services focused on relieving musculoskeletal pain and stiffness.

The Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of Chiropractic
Use Among US Adults: Results From the 2012
National Health Interview Survey

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 (Dec 1); 42 (23): 1810–1816 ~ FULL TEXT

A substantial proportion of US adults utilized chiropractic services during the past 12 months and reported associated positive outcomes for overall well-being and/or specific health problems for which concurrent conventional care was common. Studies on the current patient integration of chiropractic and conventional health services are warranted.

The Chiropractic Profession: A Scoping Review of
Utilization Rates, Reasons for Seeking Care,
Patient Profiles, and Care Provided

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2017 (Nov 22); 25: 35 ~ FULL TEXT

The literature search retrieved 14,149 articles; 328 studies (reported in 337 articles) were relevant and reported on chiropractic utilization (245 studies), reason for attending chiropractic care (85 studies), patient demographics (130 studies), and assessment and treatment provided (34 studies). Globally, the median 12-month utilization of chiropractic services was 9.1% (interquartile range (IQR): 6.7%-13.1%) and remained stable between 1980 and 2015. Most patients consulting chiropractors were female (57.0%, IQR: 53.2%-60.0%) with a median age of 43.4 years (IQR: 39.6-48.0), and were employed (median: 77.3%, IQR: 70.3%-85.0%). The most common reported reasons for people attending chiropractic care were (median) low back pain (49.7%, IQR: 43.0%-60.2%), neck pain (22.5%, IQR: 16.3%-24.5%), and extremity problems (10.0%, IQR: 4.3%-22.0%). The most common treatment provided by chiropractors included (median) spinal manipulation (79.3%, IQR: 55.4%-91.3%), soft-tissue therapy (35.1%, IQR: 16.5%-52.0%), and formal patient education (31.3%, IQR: 22.6%-65.0%).

What Is Chiropractic?
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2017 (Nov 2); 25: 30 ~ FULL TEXT

While in some jurisdictions chiropractic is fully integrated in public and insurance funded health care systems, in others it is outside and considered as complementary or alternative health care. There is a paucity of data and rigorous scientific studies regarding most aspects of chiropractic practice although research activity has been increasing in recent years. We call for papers for a thematic series in Chiropractic and Manual Therapies that can help define chiropractic better to stakeholders inside and outside the profession under the theme What is Chiropractic?

Tone as a Health Concept: An Analysis
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 (Nov); 29: 27–34 ~ FULL TEXT

There is no clear interpretation of tone in the contemporary chiropractic literature. Tone is closely aligned with functional neurology and can be understood as an interface between the metaphysical and the biomedical. Using the concept of tone as a foundation for practice could strengthen the identity of the chiropractic profession.

Essential Literature for the Chiropractic Profession:
Results and Implementation Challenges from a
Survey of International Chiropractic Faculty

J Chiropractic Education 2017 (Aug 2) [Epub] ~ FULL TEXT

A systematic approach to surveying educators in all international chiropractic institutions was accomplished. The results of this survey provide a cursory list of essential literature for the chiropractic profession. An interesting follow-up or related study would be an examination of the scientific literature used in chiropractic program syllabi. We recommend establishment of a chiropractic faculty registry for ease of communication and collaboration. This could be done under a current established organization, such as the WFC, or alternatively as an international entity affiliated with the ACC.

A Cross-sectional Study of Chiropractic Students' Research
Readiness Using the Academic Self-Concept Analysis Scale

J Chiropractic Education 2017 (Aug 2) [Epub] ~ FULL TEXT

This study found that the majority of chiropractic students display the attributes of self-regulation, general intellectual abilities, motivation, and creativity that would be well suited and oriented to a research and evidence–based chiropractic curriculum. For reasons that require further elucidation through research, the final-year students’ self-perception indicated a less oriented attitude toward these domains compared to the entry-level students.

For Bad Backs, It May Be Time to Rethink
Biases About Chiropractors

The New York Times (5–01–2017) ~ FULL TEXT

About two of every three people will probably experience significant low back pain at some point. A physician like me might suggest any number of potential treatments and therapies. But one I never considered was a referral for spinal manipulation.   It appears I may have been mistaken. For initial treatment of lower back pain, it may be time for me (and other physicians) to rethink our biases.

The Swiss Master in Chiropractic Medicine Curriculum:
Preparing Graduates to Work Together With Medicine
to Improve Patient Care

J Chiropractic Humanities 2016 (Dec); 23 (1): 53–60 ~ FULL TEXT

The MChiroMed program is a unique chiropractic curriculum that integrates medical and chiropractic education within a spiral curriculum at a world-class Swiss university medical school. The expectation is that graduates, with their expanded diagnostic and therapeutic knowledge, skills, and experience, will become future experts in primary spine care in Switzerland. It is hoped that this curriculum model will be adopted by other countries and jurisdictions seeking to enhance the role of chiropractic in health care.

Chiropractic Identity: A Neurological, Professional,
and Political Assessment

J Chiropractic Humanities 2016 (Dec); 23 (1): 35–45 ~ FULL TEXT

Over 120 years since its inception, chiropractic has struggled to achieve an identity for which its foundations could provide optimal health care. Despite recognition of the benefits of spinal manipulation in various government guidelines, advances in US military and Veterans Administration, and persistently high levels of patient satisfaction, the chiropractic profession remains underrepresented in most discussions of health care delivery. Distinguishing characteristics of doctors of chiropractic include the following:
There are more articles like this @ our Chiropractic Identity Page

Chiropractic Identity in the United States:
Wisdom, Courage, and Strength

J Chiropractic Humanities 2016 (Sep 15); 23 (1): 29–34 ~ FULL TEXT

The various clinical specialties and independent groups in the chiropractic profession are so different in their beliefs, practice styles, and political agendas that a common identity is unlikely to be created. Areas of disagreement, including advanced practice, vertebral subluxation, and the philosophy of chiropractic, continue to separate those in the profession. Doctors of chiropractic should accept that differences within the profession will remain for the foreseeable future and that the profession should allow each group to live peacefully and supportively alongside each other.

Core and Complementary Chiropractic:
Lowering Barriers to Patient Utilization of Services

J Chiropractic Humanities 2016 (Sep 15); 23 (1): 1-13 ~ FULL TEXT

The practice workplace is an effective lever for altering barriers to the use of services. Clarifying rhetoric through conceptualization of core and complementary practices simplifies the socialization dynamic. Further, it takes advantage of accepted cultural semantics in meaningful analogy while continuing to empower practical diversity in care delivery in response to evolving scientific evidence.

Trends in the Use and Characteristics of Chiropractic
Services in the Department of Veterans Affairs

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 (Jun); 39 (5): 381–386 ~ FULL TEXT

From October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2015, the annual number of patients seen in VA chiropractic clinics increased from 4,052 to 37,349 (821.7%), and the annual number of chiropractic visits increased from 20,072 to 159,366 (693.9%). The typical VA chiropractic patient is male, is between the ages of 45 and 64, is seen for low back and/or neck conditions, and receives chiropractic spinal manipulation and evaluation and management services. The total number of VA chiropractic clinics grew from 27 to 65 (9.4% annually), and the number of chiropractor employees grew from 13 to 86 (21.3% annually). The typical VA chiropractor employee is a 45.9–year-old man, has worked in VA for 4.5 years, and receives annual compensation of $97,860. VA also purchased care from private sector chiropractors starting in 2000, growing to 159,533 chiropractic visits for 19,435 patients at a cost of $11,155,654 annually.
There are more articles like this @ our Chiropractic Care For Veterans Page

Challenges of the Past, Challenges of the Present
J Chiropractic Humanities 2015 (Nov 18); 22 (1): 30–46 ~ FULL TEXT

The McAndrews Leadership Lecture was developed by the American Chiropractic Association to honor the legacy of Jerome F. McAndrews, DC, and George P. McAndrews, JD, and their contributions to the chiropractic profession. This article is a transcription of the presentation made by Dr Scott Haldeman on February 28, 2015, in Washington, DC, at the National Chiropractic Leadership Conference.

Regional Supply of Chiropractic Care and Visits to
Primary Care Physicians for Back and Neck Pain

J American Board of Family Medicine 2015 (Jul); 28 (4): 481–490 ~ FULL TEXT

Despite the inherent limitations of our study, our findings offer important insights into the indirect effects of Medicare’s chiropractic care benefit on PCP services. Our finding that chiropractic care is associated with fewer visits to PCPs for back and/or neck pain is important for health policymakers to consider. Driven by both increased spending [11, 12] and a series of reports by the Office of the Inspector General, [11–14] Medicare’s chiropractic care benefit is currently being examined. In addition to providing important information regarding the impact of coverage of chiropractic care, our study also underscores the importance of evaluating the indirect effects of ambulatory health services. When extrapolated to the nation (based on our predictions from our adjusted model), we estimate that chiropractic care is associated with a reduction of 0.37 million visits to PCPs for back and/or neck pain at a total cost of $83.5 million (Table 3).

Interprofessional Collaboration in Research, Education, and
Clinical Practice: Working Together for a Better Future

J Chiropractic Education 2015 (Mar); 29 (1): 1–10 ~ FULL TEXT

Interprofessional collaboration occurs when 2 or more professions work together to achieve common goals and is often used as a means for solving a variety of problems and complex issues. The benefits of collaboration allow participants to achieve together more than they can individually, serve larger groups of people, and grow on individual and organizational levels. This editorial provides an overview of interprofessional collaboration in the areas of clinical practice, education, and research; discusses barriers to collaboration; and suggests potential means to overcome them.

The Chiropractic Scope of Practice in the United States:
A Cross-sectional Survey

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2014 (Jul); 37 (6): 363–376

The scope of chiropractic practice in the United States has a high degree of variability. Scope of practice is dynamic, and gray areas are subject to interpretation by ever-changing board members. Although statutes may not address specific procedures, upon challenge, there may be a possibility of sanctions depending on interpretation.

Clinical Effectiveness Of Manual Therapy For The Management
Of Musculoskeletal And Non-Musculoskeletal Conditions:
Systematic Review And Update Of UK Evidence Report

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2014 (Mar 28); 22 (1): 12 ~ FULL TEXT

25,539 records were found; 178 new and additional studies were identified, of which 72 were systematic reviews, 96 were randomised controlled trials, and 10 were non-randomised primary studies. Most 'inconclusive' or 'moderate' evidence ratings of the UK evidence report were confirmed. Evidence ratings changed in a positive direction from inconclusive to moderate evidence ratings in only three cases (manipulation/mobilisation [with exercise] for rotator cuff disorder; spinal mobilisation for cervicogenic headache; and mobilisation for miscellaneous headache). In addition, evidence was identified on a large number of non-musculoskeletal conditions not previously considered; most of this evidence was rated as inconclusive.

The Provision of Chiropractic, Physiotherapy and Osteopathic
Services Within the Australian Private Health-care System:
A Report of Recent Trends

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2014 (Jan 15); 22 (1): 3 ~ FULL TEXT

In 2012, the number of physiotherapists working in the private sector was 2.9 times larger than that of chiropractic, and 7.8 times that of the osteopathic profession. The total number of services provided by chiropractors, physiotherapists, and osteopaths increased steadily over the past 15 years. For the majority of this period, chiropractors provided more services than the other two professions. The average number of services provided by chiropractors was approximately two and a half times that of physiotherapists and four and a half times that of osteopaths.

Conservative Spine Care: Opportunities to Improve
the Quality and Value of Care

Popul Health Manag. 2013 (Dec); 16 (6): 390–396 ~ FULL TEXT

A previous article analyzed current practices regarding the use of coronary stents in the chronic stable angina patient. [4] Musculoskeletal disorders represent another diagnostic class that, while usually not life threatening, results in a high prevalence of morbidity and significant societal burden. [5] Low back pain (LBP) management in particular has been linked to inefficiency and waste. [6] This is likely related, in part, to the growing list of treatment approaches recommended for conservative care (pharmacologic and non-pharmaceutical options) and the difficulty in determining the best option for each patient. [7]

We Can Tell Where It Hurts, But Can We Tell Where
the Pain is Coming From or Where We Should Manipulate?

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2013 (Oct 21); 21 (1): 35 ~ FULL TEXT

Though it may be easy to criticize any review of this type of literature and point out shortcomings there are strong take away messages for the clinician interested in employing SMT as a part of their treatment protocol. Most notably, clinicians can be reassured that a history on the localization of pain, tissue palpation, provocative testing, range of motion testing and the demonstration by the patient of the locus and description of pain have reasonable consistency between observers. What this paper does not inform us on is the nature of the lesion causing the pain or where the manipulation should be applied to obtain the best outcome.

Low Back Pain-related Beliefs and Likely Practice Behaviours
Among Final-year Cross-discipline Health Students

European Journal of Pain 2013 (May); 17 (5): 766–775 ~ FULL TEXT

Six hundred two students completed the survey (response rate 74.6%). Cross-discipline differences in beliefs and clinical recommendations were observed (p > 0.001). Physiotherapy and chiropractic students reported significantly more helpful beliefs compared with the other disciplines, while pharmacy students reported the least helpful beliefs. A greater proportion of chiropractic and physiotherapy students reported guideline-consistent recommendations compared with other disciplines. HC-PAIRS and BBQ scores were strongly associated with clinical recommendations, independent to the discipline of study and prior experience of LBP.

Epidemiology: Spinal Manipulation Utilization
J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012 (Oct); 22 (5): 648–654 ~ FULL TEXT

Back and neck pain are the most frequent indications for receiving spinal manipulation; non-musculoskeletal conditions comprise a very small percentage of indications. Although spinal manipulation is more commonly used in adults than children, evidence suggests that spinal manipulation may be more likely used for non-musculoskeletal ailments in children than in adults. Patient satisfaction with spinal manipulation is very high.

The Role of Chiropractic Care in Older Adults
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012 (Feb 21); 20 (1): 3 ~ FULL TEXT

While there is already substantial published research to assist the evidence-based DC in his/her care plan for the older adult, there is a need for well designed clinical trials and large observational studies to identify the most beneficial treatments, particularly for complementary and alternative interventions such as manual therapy including, but not limited to, spinal manipulative therapy and acupuncture.
There are more articles like this at our Senior Care Page

Hospital-Based Chiropractic Integration Within a Large
Private Hospital System in Minnesota: A 10-Year Example

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 (Nov); 32 (9): 740–748 ~ FULL TEXT

This article describes the process of integrating chiropractic into one of the largest private hospital systems in Minnesota from a business and professional perspective and the results achieved once chiropractic was integrated into the system. This study identified key factors that facilitated integration of services and demonstrates that chiropractic care can be successfully integrated within a hospital system.

A Comparative Analysis of Chiropractic and General Practitioner
Patients in North America: Findings From the Joint Canada/
United States Survey of Health, 2002-03

BMC Health Serv Res 2006 (Apr 6); 6: 49 ~ FULL TEXT

Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and research implications.

Maintaining a Vitalistic Perspective in
Chiropractic in the Postmodern Era

J Chiropractic Humanities 2005; 12 (1): 2–7 55–66

Vitalism is only problematic if we begin with the assumption that a mechanist worldview or paradigm is the correct way to explain the world. In postmodern thought, a multiplicity of worldviews may coexist. One view is no more valid or correct than another and these divergent views are judged best by their utility under various circumstances. Exploring clinical practices and methodologies, such as whole systems research, arising from a vitalistic perspective could lead to innovations in both patient care and research, if pursued with flexible non-dogmatic thinking.

Assessment of Knowledge of Primary Care Activities
in a Sample of Medical and Chiropractic Students

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005 (Jun); 28 (5): 336–344 ~ FULL TEXT

To examine the influence of chiropractic education on knowledge of primary care tasks. Scores received on a test of knowledge of primary care tasks were compared between 3 samples of chiropractic students and 1 small sample of medical students. In this sample, chiropractic students performed almost as well as medical students on a test that was designed to measure knowledge of primary care tasks. If the premise is accepted that medical school is the gold standard of primary care instruction, that chiropractic students fared almost as well as medical students is noteworthy.

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Chiropractic
Adjustments to Muscle Relaxants for Subacute Low Back Pain

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004 (Jul); 27 (6): 388–398 ~ FULL TEXT

Baseline values, except GIS, were similar for all groups. When all subjects completing the protocol were combined (N = 146), the data revealed pain, disability, depression, and GIS decreased significantly (P <.0001); lumbar flexibility did not change. Statistical differences across groups were seen for pain, a primary outcome, (chiropractic group improved more than control group) and GIS (chiropractic group improved more than other groups). No significant differences were seen for disability, depression, flexibility, or acetaminophen usage across groups.   Chiropractic was more beneficial than placebo in reducing pain and more beneficial than either placebo or muscle relaxants in reducing Global Impression of Severity Scale (GIS).

Blue Cross Lumbago Study Demonstrates
Chiropractic's Cost-effectiveness

Dynamic Chiropractic (October 31, 2000)

When sorted by the average cost per episode, chiropractic is more cost-effective than anesthesiology; neurosurgery; neurology; registered physical therapy; orthopedic reconstructive surgery; physical medicine and rehabilitation; and rheumatology. The majority of chiropractic charges were associated with the basic office-treatment-related services performed. Eighty-nine percent of the chiropractic charges were for services related to the treatment, while only 45 percent of the family practice costs were related to treatment of the condition. The remainder of the costs were for expensive diagnostics. For each 100 episodes, the chiropractor provided 265 modalities. For each 100 episodes, the registered physical therapist provided 885 modalities: over three times as many units of physical therapy provided by RPTs than chiropractors. This is a cost that has to be globally charged to the family practice providers, since patients cannot access RPTs without a referral from a medical doctor.
There are more articles like this @ our Low Back Pain and Chiropractic Page

Does Early Joint Trauma Lead to Osteoarthritis?
Annals of Internal Medicine 2000 (Sep 5); 133 (5): 321–328

This page describes the increased risk of oateoarthritis following trauma, then reveals that surgery also increases that risk, and goes on to suggest that those risks can be reduced with conservative chiropractic care.

Studies Supporting Chiropractic's Efficacy,
Appropriateness and Cost-effectiveness

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (2000)

A summary of published studies and official inquiries documenting the efficacy and appropriateness of chiropractic health care, compiled by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
There are more articles like this @ our Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Page

Chiropractic Training vs. Medical Training
Chiropractic Education Requirements

FROM: The Chiropractic Profession. NCMIC Group Inc. 2000

Chiropractic colleges require a minimum of four academic years of professional resident study (not less than 4,200 clock hours), including clinical experience under strict supervision, preceded by a minimum of two years of college work with a curriculum concentrated in the biological and basic sciences, and clinical disciplines. The remaining two years emphasize practical or clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of disease with approximately half the time spent in college clinics.

Chiropractic: More Than Spinal Manipulation
J Chiropractic Humanities 1998; 8: 71–76 ~ FULL TEXT

Chiropractic has made great advances in its acceptance by the general public and the biomedical establishment in recent years. However, the medical establishment still views chiropractic as a procedure – spinal manipulation – rather than as a profession which operates based on a unique approach to health care. This article provides a rationale and support for chiropractic as a profession that offers a unique approach to health care, based on the chiropractic belief system and the interpretation of the chiropractic clinical encounter developed by medical anthropologists. Requirements and implications for the future development of the profession in this direction are discussed.

New Study Compares Chiropractic and Medical Education
Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 (Sep); 4 (5): 64–75

Coulter et al. studied the curriculum of six schools in California, Iowa, and Texas–– one chiropractic college and one medical school for each state. According to their methods, comparisons were drawn by examining course directories, syllabi, outlines and notes, as well as timetables, lectures, seminars, practicals, and rounds.

Origins & History of Chiropractic Care
The American Chiropractic Association

This from the ACA News web site: The word ‘Chiropractic’ comes from the Greek words cheir (meaning ‘hand’) and praktos (meaning ‘done’), i.e. Done by Hand. The name was chosen by the developer of chiropractic, Daniel David Palmer. A prolific reader of all things scientific, DD Palmer realized that although various forms of manipulation had been used for hundreds if not thousands of years, no one had developed a philosophical or scientific rationale to explain their effects. Palmer’s major contribution to the health field was therefore the codification of the philosophy, art and science of chiropractic, which was based on his extensive study of anatomy and physiology. Palmer performed the initial chiropractic adjustment in September 1895. Palmer examined a janitor who had become deaf 17 years prior after he felt something “give” in his back. Palmer examined the area and gave an “adjustment” to what he felt to be a misplaced vertebra in the upper back. The janitor then observed that his hearing improved.

A Parents Guide to Chiropractic
The International Chiropractic Association

Chiropractic is a conservative and natural healing art and science that concentrates on keeping people well. While chiropractic is an American science over 100 years old, its wellness practices have stood the test of time--dating back to spinal manipulations first used by Hippocrates, the Father of Healing, in the 4th Century B.C. Chiropractic is a conservative and natural healing art and science that concentrates on keeping people well. While chiropractic is an American science over 100 years old, its wellness practices have stood the test of time--dating back to spinal manipulations first used by Hippocrates, the Father of Healing, in the 4th Century B.C.

A Comparison of Health Care Costs for
Chiropractic and Medical Patients

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993 (Jun); 16 (5): 291–299

Miron Stano, PhD, Oakland University, conducted a study comparing the health-care costs for chiropractic and medical patients with neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The database he used came from the records of MEDSTAT Systems, Inc., a health benefits management consulting firm which processes insurance claims for many of the country's largest corporations. This June 1993 Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics study involved 395,641 patients Results over a two-year period showed that patients who received chiropractic care incurred significantly lower health care costs than did patients treated solely by medical or osteopathic physicians.

The Chiropractic Oath
In accordance with the law of nature, that law which God has prescribed to all men; and in consequence of my dedication to getting the sick well by the application of that law, I promise and swear to keep, to the best of my ability and judgement, the following oath:

What the Government says about Chiropractic

   Chiropractic as a Professional Choice
Occupational Outlook Handbook 2008–09
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Chiropractors, also known as doctors of chiropractic or chiropractic physicians, diagnose and treat patients whose health problems are associated with the body’s muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems, especially the spine. Chiropractors believe that interference with these systems impairs the body’s normal functions and lowers its resistance to disease. They also hold that spinal or vertebral dysfunction alters many important body functions by affecting the nervous system and that skeletal imbalance through joint or articular dysfunction, especially in the spine, can cause pain.

   Chiropractic in the United States:
Training, Practice, and Research

AHCPR Publication No. 98–N002 December 1997

One hundred years ago, the founder of the chiropractic profession, D. D. Palmer, reportedly used spinal manipulation to restore a deaf janitor’s hearing. A series of events following this dramatic incident ultimately led to the establishment of what is now one of the largest health care professions in the United States. From its beginnings, this new profession eschewed more invasive treatments in favor of spinal adjusting (or manipulation) as its central approach to care. During much of its first century of existence, chiropractic was shunned by the medical profession and remained on the fringe of mainstream health care. In fact, as recently as 1980, the American Medical Association’s Principles of Medical Ethics proscribed any associations between physicians and chiropractors or other “unscientific practitioners.”

   Chiropractic in the United States   PDF
AHCPR Publication No. 98–N002 December 1997

In the past 10 to 15 years there have been dramatic changes both within the chiropractic profession and in the relationship between chiropractic and the health care system. Within the profession, significant progress has been made to upgrade the quality of training at the 17 accredited chiropractic colleges in North America. In addition, a small cadre of chiropractic researchers has been trained, initially with grant support from various chiropractic foundations and more recently from the Federal government. As a result, chiropractic researchers have become involved in a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, evaluating the effectiveness of spinal manipulation.


Reference Materials

The Safety of Chiropractic
A Chiro.Org article collection

Millions of patients love their chiropractor and appreciate our unique and safe approach to recovery from pain. Significant research suggests that chiropractic is the safest approach available for relief from neck pain, back pain, headaches and other “musculo–skeletal” complaints. Lets review that research, and discuss how modern medicine has contributed to the Myth that chiropractic care is dangerous.

Health Promotion & Wellness Articles
A Chiro.Org article collection

Enjoy this series of articles (mostly by by Meridel I. Gatterman, MA, DC, MEd) as they review how DCs have traditionally counseled patients on health promotion and wellness.   You will find these articles most informative!

The Cost-effectiveness of Chiropractic
A Chiro.Org article collection

The cost advantages for chiropractic for matched conditions appear to be so dramatic that Pran Manga, the aforementioned Canadian health economist, has concluded that doubling the utilization of chiropractic services from 10% to 20% may realize savings as much as $770 million in direct costs and $3.8 billion in indirect costs. [20] When iatrogenic effects [yet to be discussed] are factored in, the cost advantages of spinal manipulation as a treatment alternative become even more prominent.

Patient Satisfaction With Chiropractic
A Chiro.Org article collection

For matched back pain conditions, patient satisfaction with chiropractic treatment has invariably been shown to be significantly greater than that with conventional management [administered by a primary care physician, an orthopedist, or an HMO provider]. Read the results of a variety of studies right here!

Chiropractors as the Spinal Health Care Experts
A Chiro.Org article collection

Enjoy these learned articles about chiropractors as first-contact Spinal Health Care Experts.

The Chiropractic Antitrust Suit ~ Wilk, et al vs. the AMA, et al
A Chiro.Org collection

For those who have forgotten, or for those who never knew, organized medicine spent decades and millions of dollars trying to discredit and destroy chiropractic. Today the vestiges of this surpression are still found on fringe web sites which ignore the body of peer-reviewed research supporting chiropractic care. Explore the breadth of medical arrogance in this in-depth review of the Wilk case.

D.D. Palmer, the Father of Chiropractic

B.J. Palmer, the Developer of Chiropractic

David Palmer and Friend...This is my all-time favorite!

Thanks to the Palmer Archives for permission to reproduce these pictures!

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