Soy Protein

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
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Soy and: Alzheimer's Cancer Cholesterol Diabetes

Menopause Osteoarthritis Renal Disease Stroke

Acidophilus Alpha Lipoic Antioxidants Beta Carotene

Bioflavonoids Co–Q10 GLA Ginkgo

Glucosamine Magnesium Omega-3 Selenium

Soy Protein Vitamin B Antibiotics Iatrogenic

Conditions That Respond Alternative Medicine Approaches to Disease

Soy Articles

The Menopause Relief Page
A Chiro.Org article collection

A great collection of articles, as well as reviews of the impact of Soy, Dong quai, and Black cohosh on perimenopausal symptoms.

Dietary Protein is Associated with Musculoskeletal Health
Independently of Dietary Pattern: The Framingham
Third Generation Study

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2017 (Mar); 105 (3): 714–722

If you’re vegan for any length of time, you may hear this common question: “Where do you get your protein?”   Well, according to science, plants will do you just fine. The long-standing myth about the necessity of meat for building muscle has been disproven as a recent study found that plant-based proteins benefit muscle health the same as animal protein.

The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found that the type of protein consumed — be it plant or animal — didn’t matter to muscle mass or strength. Only the amount consumed; those subjects who consumed the least amount of protein had the lowest levels of muscle mass, but type of protein they ate had no impact on their muscoskeletal health.

The Natural History of Soy Allergy
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 (Mar); 125 (3): 683–686

In this referral population approximately 50% of children with soy allergy outgrew their allergy by age 7 years. Absolute soy IgE levels were useful predictors of outgrowing soy allergy.

Phytochemicals: Nutrients Whose Time Has Come
Nutrition Science News (July 2000)

Phytochemicals are a group of nutritive components found in herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and spices. Animal foods contain a similar group of disease-preventing nutrients--the term zoochemical has been suggested for them. Phytochemicals and zoochemicals -- unlike carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals -- are not considered essential for life and have therefore been assigned quasi-nutrient status. Several disease-preventive benefits have been proposed for phytochemicals and zoochemicals.

Soy Isoflavones for Women's Health: Is Soy a Viable Alternative
to Traditional Estrogen Hormone Replacement?

Nutrition Science News

In April and May of 1998, newspaper headlines were buzzing with news of the latest cancer prevention pills. Two prescription drugs, tamoxifen and raloxifene, were found to reduce the risk of breast cancer. There were drawbacks to the pharmaceuticals, however, as there usually are: Tamoxifen increased the risk of endometrial cancer and pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the lungs), and raloxifene users were more likely to suffer from hot flashes and leg cramps.

Soy Isoflavones Monograph
Alternative Medicine Review 1998 (Oct): 3 (5): 376–378 ~ FULL TEXT

The principle isoflavones in soy are Genistein, Daidzein, and their metabolites. Genistein has a hydroxy group in the 5 position, giving it three hydroxy groups, while Daidzein has just two. Isoflavones are members of the large flavonoid family of plant compounds which are in turn members of the larger group of plant constituents known as polyphenols.

Estrogen Replacements
Nutrition Science News (August 1999)

This article discusses the three "natural" human estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol), the so-called xenoestrogens (including "designer estrogens" like tamoxifen and raloxifene, and Pesticides and Herbicides, which also induce estrogenic properties in humans), and the Phytoestrogens (derived from red clover, soy and certain other legumes). It then discusses the safety of phytoestrogen replacement for hormonal balancing.

Dr. Steve Chaney's Response to Recent Soy
“Scare Articles” in the Popular Press

Recent news reports suggesting that soy might interfere with cancer treatment in people who already have breast cancer are highly misleading. This statement is based on two reports showing that soy caused a small stimulation of normal breast cancer tissue and a report that genistein, one of the phytoestrogens found in soy, stimulated the rate of growth of breast cancer cells in mice lacking both their ovaries and a functioning immune system.

Improving The Prognosis For Breast Cancer Survival:
Dangerous DNA Damage Can Be Prevented With Vitamins,
Citrus and Soy

Nutrition Science News

Ask women about their greatest health fears, and many will rank breast cancer close to the top, even though they're five times more likely to die from heart disease. Yet conventional medicine, in the quest to prevent breast cancer, has accomplished little more than a dog chasing its own tail. The drug tamoxifen, for instance, helps many women with breast cancer, but they pay the price of an increased risk of endometrial cancer.1 Medicine would do much better concentrating on genuine prevention -- especially through nutrition.

Soy Isoflavones May Cut Menopausal Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrition Science News (July 1999)

A woman's body goes through many changes during menopause—some of them with potential to affect cardiovascular health. When women's estrogen levels decrease during menopause, blood vessels can become rigid and less responsive to changes in blood flow and blood flow-altering mediators such as nitric oxide. Until now this decline in cardiovascular health was a risk women had to face if they opted against hormone replacement therapy. But research published in the March issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism [1999;84(3):895-8] suggests that Promensil, an isoflavone-based dietary supplement derived from red clover, may help women maintain blood vessel elasticity and prevent hypertension during menopause.

Estrogen's Two-Way Street
Nutrition Science News (November 2001)

The continuing controversy over the health benefits and risks of estrogen is a complex and evolving story. Part of the reason is because estrogen is a much more complicated substance than originally believed. Although most people think of estrogen as a single entity, these hormones are actually three biochemically distinct molecules the body produces naturally—estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). These three estrogen molecules have different activities that make them more or less "estrogenic." The estrogenic activity often determines the mutagenic or carcinogenic potential of an estrogen.

Ease Into Menopause Naturally
Nutrition Science News

“Choice” is a concept closely associated with the generation of women now making their way through menopause. It is a concept that throughout most of their lives has motivated, bitterly divided and most of all conditioned these women to question the status quo--from civil rights to reproductive rights. So it comes as no surprise that when the vanguard of this generation experienced the onset of menopause and discovered that easing their symptoms meant choosing among their hearts, bones and breasts, they demanded more--more research, more guarantees, more choice in menopausal management options.

Keeping Women Healthy With Soy
Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals 2003

It is known that women living in Asia have lower risks of heart disease, breast cancer and menopausal symptoms than Western women. These differences in risks, however, disappear within a generation or two after Asian women emigrate to the West. In recent years, researchers have attributed these differences in disease and symptom risks to environmental factors, particularly diet. One of the more promising biochemical factors they have investigated is phyto-estrogens.

The Joy Of Soy: Worried About High Cholesterol? This Versatile Bean
May Be Just What the Doctor Ordered

Time Magazine 1999 (Jun 7); 153 (22): 68–69

Dolores Pilcher, 67, a retired nurse living in Mount Airy, N.C., knows her risk of heart disease only too well. Both her father and an aunt died of heart attacks when they were still pretty young, and her cholesterol level has soared over the past few years. So when she heard that scientists were trying to determine if drinking a soy-protein milk shake every day could lower cholesterol levels, she volunteered to take part in the experiment.

And FDA Said: Let Them Eat Soy
Nutrition Science News (January 2000)

When first introduced, soy foods held a tenuous position in the American diet. The original soy "ice creams" and bland tofu blocks were well received by vegetarians and the gastronomically experimental, yet the general public remained wary of making one of this country's biggest animal feed crops part of the national cuisine. However, as the health benefits of soy evolve from anecdotal reports to sound clinical studies and as soy foods become more accessible, diverse and tasty, Americans are growing quite fond of the lowly bean.


Soy and Alzheimer's Disease

Soy Isoflavone Alleviates Aß1-42-Induced Impairment of Learning
and Memory Ability through the Regulation of RAGE/LRP-1 in
Neuronal and Vascular Tissue

Curr Neurovasc Res. 2013 (May); 10 (2): 144—156

These results suggested that soy isoflavone (SIF) could protect Aß-impaired learning and memory in rats, and its mechanism might be associated with the regulation of vascular Aß transportation and vascular inflammatory reaction.

Estradiol or Genistein Prevent Alzheimer's Disease-associated
Inflammation Correlating With An Increase PPAR Gamma Expression
in Cultured Astrocytes

Brain Res. 2010 (Feb 2); 1312: 138–144

All these effects were prevented when cells were pretreated with estradiol or genistein, demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects of estradiol or genistein in astrocytes in primary culture. The A beta-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory genes in cells is antagonized by the action of the PPARs (peroxisome proliferator activated receptors).

Soy Isoflavone Glycitein Protects Against Beta Amyloid-induced
Toxicitya nd Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Caenorhabditis Elegans

BMC Neuroscience 2005 (Aug 25); 6: 54 ~ FULL TEXT

Epidemiological studies have associated estrogen replacement therapy with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, but a higher risk of developing breast cancer and certain cardiovascular disorders. The neuroprotective effect of estrogen prompted us to determine potential therapeutic impact of soy-derived estrogenic compounds. Mice, who are genetically prone to express the human beta amyloid found in Alzheimer's Disease, were fed with the soy derived isoflavones genistein, daidzein and glycitein (100 microg/ml), and then examined for Abeta-induced paralysis and the levels of reactive oxygen species. Among the three compounds tested, only glycitein alleviated Abeta expression-induced paralysis in the transgenic C. elegans. These findings suggest that a specific soy isoflavone glycitein may suppress Abeta toxicity through combined antioxidative activity and inhibition of Abeta deposition, thus may have therapeutic potential for prevention of Abeta associated neurodegenerative disorders.


Soy and Cancer

Soy Food Consumption and Breast Cancer Prognosis
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 (May); 20 (5): 854–858 ~ FULL TEXT

As isoflavone intake increased, risk of death decreased (P for trend = 0.02). Women at the highest levels of isoflavone intake (>16.3 mg isoflavones) had a nonsignificant 54% reduction in risk of death.   Our study is the third epidemiologic study to report no adverse effects of soy foods on breast cancer prognosis.

Effect of Soy Isoflavones on Breast Cancer Recurrence
and Death for Patients Receiving Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy

Canadian Medical Association Journal 2010 (Nov 23); 182 (17): 1857–1862 ~ FULL TEXT

The median follow-up period for the 524 patients in this study was 5.1 years. High dietary intake of soy isoflavones was associated with lower risk of recurrence among post-menopausal patients with breast cancer positive for estrogen and progesterone receptor and those who were receiving anastrozole as endocrine therapy.

Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival
J American Medical Association 2009 (Dec 9); 302 (22): 2437–2443 ~ FULL TEXT

Soy foods are rich in isoflavones, a major group of phytoestrogens that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. To evaluate the association of soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer with total mortality and cancer recurrence, 5033 surgically treated breast cancer patients were tracked for more than 3 years. Soy food intake, as measured by either soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The researchers then concluded that soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence of breast cancer.

Childhood Soy Intake and Breast Cancer Risk
in Asian American Women

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2009 (Apr); 18 (4): 1050–1059 ~ FULL TEXT

Soy i take during childhood, adolescence, and adult life
was associated with decreased breast cancer risk, with the strongest, most consistent effect for childhood intake.   Soy may be a hormonally related, early-life exposure that influences breast cancer incidence.

Antiestrogenic Glyceollins Suppress Human Breast
and Ovarian Carcinoma Tumorigenesis

Clin Cancer Res. 2006 (Dec 1); 12 (23): 7159–7164 ~ FULL TEXT

Treatment with glyceollin suppressed E2-stimulated tumor growth of MCF-7 cells (-53.4%) and BG-1 cells (-73.1%) in ovariectomized athymic mice. These tumor-inhibiting effects corresponded with significantly lower E2-induced progesterone receptor expression in the tumors. In contrast to tamoxifen, the glyceollins had no estrogen-agonist effects on uterine morphology and partially antagonized the uterotropic effects of estrogen.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify glyceollins as antiestrogenic agents that may be useful in the prevention or treatment of breast and ovarian carcinoma.

Genistein in the Diet Reduces the Incidence of Poorly Differentiated
Prostatic Adenocarcinoma in Transgenic Mice (TRAMP)

Cancer Res 2001 (Sep 15); 61 (18): 6777–6782

Using body and organ weights as indicators, dietary genistein had no toxic effect on TRAMP mice. The percentage of transgenic males that developed PD was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by dietary genistein.

Soy Compound Has Anti–Cancer Effect
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 381–388

A high consumption of soy- based food such as tofu is thought to protect against cancer, and now California researchers suggest a reason why: a compound found in soy, called genistein, suppresses the production of stress proteins in cells - proteins that otherwise help cancer cells survive destruction by the immune system.

Case–Control Study of Phyto–oestrogens and Breast Cancer
Lancet 1997 (ct 4); 350 (9083): 990–994

There is a substantial reduction in breast-cancer risk among women with a high intake (as measured by excretion) of phyto-oestrogen, particularly the isoflavonic phyto-oestrogen equol and the lignan enterolactone. These findings could be important in the prevention of breast cancer.

Association of Soy and Fiber Consumption with the Risk
of Endometrial Cancer

Am J Epidemiol 1997 (Aug 15); 146 (4): 294–306

These data suggest that plant-based diets low in calories from fat, high in fiber, and rich in legumes (especially soybeans), whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. These dietary associations may explain in part the reduced rates of uterine cancer in Asian countries compared with those in the United States.

Estrogenic and Antiproliferative Properties of Genistein and Other
Flavonoids in Human Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

Nutrition and Cancer 1997; 27(1): 31–40

The isoflavonoid Genistein was compared with Tamoxifen and Estradiol, and they found that Genistein is unique among the flavonoids tested, in that it has potent estrogen agonist and cell growth–inhibitory actions over a physiologically relevant concentration range.

Genistein Inhibits Both Estrogen and Growth Factor–stimulated
Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells

Cell Growth & Differentiation 1996 (Oct); 7 (10): 1345–1351

Genistein is a naturally occurring dietary protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor that is hypothesized to be responsible for the lower rate of breast cancer observed in Asian women consuming soy. Although genistein is a potent in vitro PTK inhibitor, its mechanism of action in vivo is not known. In vivo, breast cancer growth is regulated by estrogens and peptide growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), the receptor of which has intrinsic PTK activity.

A Review of the Clinical Effects of Phytoestrogens
Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 897-904

This review suggests that phytoestrogens are among the dietary factors affording protection against cancer and heart disease in vegetarians. With this epidemiologic and cell line evidence, intervention studies are now an appropriate consideration to assess the clinical effects of phytoestrogens because of the potentially important health benefits associated with the consumption of foods containing these compounds.

Effects of Soya Consumption For One Month on Steroid Hormones
in Premenopausal Women: Implications for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996 (Jan); 5 (1): 63–70

These results suggest that consumption of soya diets containing phytoestrogens may reduce circulating ovarian steroids and adrenal androgens and increase menstrual cycle length. Such effects may account at least in part for the decreased risk of breast cancer that has been associated with legume consumption.

Rationale for the Use of Genistein-containing Soy Matrices
in Chemoprevention Trials for Breast and Prostate Cancer

J Cell Biochem 1995; 22S: 181–187

Pharmacologists have realized that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have potential as anti-cancer agents, both in prevention and therapy protocols. Nonetheless, concern about the risk of toxicity caused by synthetic TKIs restricted their development as chemoprevention agents. However, a naturally occurring TKI (the isoflavone Genistein) in soy was discovered in 1987.

Epidemiology of Soy and Cancer: Perspectives and Directions
J Nutr 1995 (Mar); 125 (3 Suppl): 709S–712S

Previous epidemiologic studies of the effects of soy protein on cancer risk have been limited by small variations in soy intake, inability to separate soy from other dietary variables and difficulties inherent in relating dietary intake to the development of cancer several decades later. As a result, although existing data suggest that soy protein may be protective for cancer risk, results are overall inconclusive.


Soy and Menopausal Symptoms

The Menopause Relief Page
A great collection of articles, as well as reviews of the impact of Soy, Dong quai, and Black cohosh on perimenopausal symptoms.

The Effect of a Soy Rich Diet on the Vaginal Epithelium in Postmenopause:
A Randomized Double Blind Trial

Maturitas. 2003 (Aug 20); 45 (4): 241–246 ~ FULL TEXT

We conclude that a soy rich diet is efficacious in increasing the maturation indices of vaginal cells. This effect could be a useful marker of the efficacy of a dietary intervention with phytoestrogen rich foods, and should be considered during preventive interventions against menopausal effects and vaginal atrophy.

Dietary Inclusion of Whole Soy Foods Results in Significant Reductions
in Clinical Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Disease
in Normal Postmenopausal Women

Menopause 2001 (Sep); 8 (5): 384–392

Dietary inclusion of whole soy foods containing 60 mg/d of isoflavones results in significant serum levels of phytoestrogens and reductions in several key clinical risk factors for CVD and osteoporosis in normal postmenopausal women.

Phytoestrogens After Breast Cancer
Endocr Relat Cancer 2001 (Jun); 8 (2): 129–134 ~ FULL TEXT

In breast cancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult malignant cells by estrogens, due to the estrogen dependence of breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens are being promoted as the 'natural alternative' to HRT and have been available without restrictions for several years as nutritional supplements. In this paper, data on the complex mammary effects of phytoestrogens in epidemiological studies, in in vitro studies, as well as in in vivo studies on animal carcinogenesis are reviewed.

Inhibition of Postmenopausal Atherosclerosis Progression: A Comparison
of the Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Soy Phytoestrogens

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 (Jan); 86 (1): 41–47

Both Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Soy Phytoestrogens significantly reduced the extent of common carotid and internal carotid artery atherosclerosis, and the two treatment groups were not significantly different.

Dietary Intervention Study to Assess Estrogenicity of Dietary Soy
Among Postmenopausal Women

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 (May); 80 (5): 1685–1690 ~ FULL TEXT

We tested the hypothesis that postmenopausal women on a soy-supplemented diet show estrogenic responses. Ninety-seven postmenopausal women were randomized to either a group that was provided with soy foods for 4 weeks or a control group that was instructed to eat as usual. Changes in urinary isoflavone concentrations served as a measure of compliance and phytoestrogen dose. Changes in serum FSH, LH, sex hormone binding globulin, and vaginal cytology were measured to assess estrogenic response. The percentage of vaginal superficial cells (indicative of estrogenicity) increased for 19% of those eating the diet compared with 8% of controls (P = 0.06 when tested by ordinal logistic regression).

Oestrogenic Effects of Plant Foods in Postmenopausal Women
British Medical Journal 1990 (Oct 20); 301 (6757): 905–906 ~ FULL TEXT

We studied 25 postmenopausal women who were non-smokers, in good general health, and taking no drugs known to affect oestrogen state (mean age 59 (range 51–70); body mass index 24.4 (range 18.7–31.6) kg/m2; years after menopause 8.1 (range 1–20)). The protocol was a latin square design with a two week run in period and a six week experimental period. The women recorded their normal diet for 14 days and were asked to repeat the fortnightly diet throughout the study. During the experimental period the diet was supplemented with soya flour (45 g daily), red clover sprouts (10 g dry seed daily), and linseed (25 g daily), each for two weeks in turn. To check compliance the women returned residual food. Blood samples were taken weekly and lateral wall vaginal smears taken fortnightly and at follow up two and eight weeks after supplementation finished. Analysis was on intention to treat, but 23 women completed the study.


Soy and Diabetes

Genistein Reduces Hyperglycemia and Islet Cell Loss in
a High-dosage Manner in Rats with Alloxan-induced
Pancreatic Damage

Pancreas. 2011 (Apr); 40 (3): 396–402

In vivo high-dose (30 mg/kg per day) but not low-dose genistein significantly decreases weight loss, hyperglycemia, and islet cell loss in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, while increasing blood insulin levels and glucose tolerance. In vitro experiments reveal that genistein improves islet cell survival and proliferation and facilitates insulin production after alloxan injury.

Effects of Soy Protein on Renal Function and Proteinuria
in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Am J Clin Nutrition 1998 (Dec); 68 (6 Suppl): 1347S–1353S

On the basis of the available evidence, we are proposing the soy-protein hypothesis, which states that substituting soy protein for animal protein in diabetes patients results in less hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension and, therefore, resultant protection from diabetic nephropathy.


Soy and Stroke

Soy Phytoestrogens Prevent Stroke As Much As Premarin
WINSTON-SALEM, NC –– March 20, 1998 ––
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy from soy protein with phytoestrogens provides equivalent reduction in the occurrence of atherosclerosis in the internal carotid artery to the standard Premarin therapy prepared from mammalian estrogens in monkeys, a Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center research team reported today at an American Heart Association meeting in Santa Fe, N.M.

Protective Effects of Soy Protein on the Peroxidizability
of Lipoproteins in Cerebrovascular Diseases

J Nutr 1995 (Mar); 125 (3 Suppl): 639S–646S

Furthermore, blood cholesterol concentrations were reduced by the administration of soy protein. Thus, soy may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of atherosclerosis.


Soy and Osteoarthritis

Isoflavones Versus Hormone Therapy for Reduction
of Vertebral Fracture Risk: Indirect Comparison

Menopause. 2010 (Nov); 17 (6): 1201–1205 ~ FULL TEXT

According to this ITC, there is no statistically significant difference between HT and isoflavones in the reduction of vertebral fracture risk due to osteoporosis, and both interventions seem to be similar for this outcome.

Soy and Its Isoflavones:
A Review of Their Effects on Bone Density

Alternative Medicine Review 2002 (Aug); 7 (4): 317–327 ~ FULL TEXT

Menopausal hormone decline contributes significantly to the risk of osteoporosis. Therapies for treating osteoporosis, such as hormone replacement therapy (estrogen or combination estrogen-progestins), inhibit bone resorption. Both animal and human studies demonstrate phytoestrogenic soy isoflavones favorably impact bone health.


Soy and Renal Disease

Protective Effects of Dietary Phytoestrogens in
Chronic Renal Disease

J Ren Nutr 2001 (Oct); 11 (4): 183–193

The biological actions of isoflavones and lignans have been well defined in different cell types in vitro and also in vivo, but how these compounds might reduce renal injury remains to be elucidated. Possible mechanisms include inhibition of cell growth and proliferation via ER-mediated mechanisms or non-ER-mediated pathways through inhibition of tyrosine protein kinases, modulation of growth factors involved in extracellular matrix synthesis and fibrogenesis, inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of transcription factors, inhibition of angiogenesis, antioxidative action, suppression of platelet activating factor and platelet aggregation, and immunomodulatory activity.

Dietary Phytoestrogens:
A Possible Role in Renal Disease Protection

Am J Kidney Dis 2001 (May); 37 (5): 1056–1068

The diversity of cellular actions of isoflavones and lignans supports their protective effects in a variety of experimental and human types of chronic renal disease. Further investigations are needed to evaluate their long-term effects on renal disease progression in patients with chronic renal failure.


Soy and Cholesterol

Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol Concentration is Associated with
High Intake of Soy Products in Japanese Men and Women

Journal of Nutrition 1998; 128 (2): 209–213

The relationship between soy product intake and serum total cholesterol concentration was examined in 1,242 men and 3,596 women who participated in an annual health check-up program in Takayama City, Japan, provided by the municipality in 1992. The intake of soy products and various foods and nutrients was assessed by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire.

Perspectives on Soy Protein as a Nonpharmacological Approach
for Lowering Cholesterol

J Nutrition 1995 (Mar); 125 (3 Suppl): 675S–678S

Dietary therapy is the first step in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, some patients are unable to lower their cholesterol concentrations to a desirable range with diet alone. For primary prevention of coronary artery disease, physicians and patients often wish to avoid pharmacologic therapy of elevated cholesterol concentrations. The use of adjuncts to diet such as soluble fibers, garlic and soy protein may allow target lipid concentrations to be reached without the use of drugs.

Soy Consumption and Cholesterol Reduction:
Review of Animal and Human Studies

J Nutrition 1995 (Mar); 125 (3 Suppl): 594S-597S

Animal proteins such as casein are more hypercholesterolemic than soy protein or other plant proteins when fed to rabbits in low-fat, cholesterol-free, semipurified diets. A casein-amino acid mixture produces a hypercholesterolemia similar to that of casein. This appears to be mainly due to lysine and methionine, although other essential amino acids probably contribute to the effect.




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